Obesity and Metabolic Disease
The prevalence of childhood obesity in developed countries increased by a staggering 47.1% globally between 1980 and 2013 yet a definitive etiology for the epidemic remains elusive. Taken in perspective, development of the obesity epidemic has been fast, significant, and highly resistant to preventive measures, with no countries reporting significant downward trends in prevalence in the past 30 years. Obesity tracks through adolescence into adulthood, a point of significant concern because data from large pooled studies have conclusively shown that BMI greater than 23 kg/m2 in adults is associated with progressive increase in risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, chronic renal disease, and osteoarthritis (Ng et al. 2014).