Occurrence in Plants and In Vitro, Animal and Human Metabolism of Chlorogenic Acids
During the last two decades, major progress has been made in the identi- cation of new compounds in plants and the investigation of the bioavailability of chlorogenic acid. From 1950 to 1990, only 13 metabolites of chlorogenic acid were reported, while today 35 metabolites have been identied. Our understanding of the metabolic cycle of chlorogenic acid has improved with the major impact of colonic ora, the formation of bacterial metabolites, their absorption into the bloodstream, their hepatic metabolism, and urinary elimination. The contribution of bacterial and cellular metabolism may explain individual variations reported in metabolic balance and the difculty in measuring pharmacokinetic parameters.