C Some Code for the R and BUGS Software
The software R is a free environment for statistical computing and graphics
(R Core Team, 2013). All the graphics in this book and almost all the anal-
yses are produced using R. The illustrative R code in this appendix is not
optimised with respect to speed but is structured in such a way that it resem-
bles the formulas in the book and can be understood even if knowledge of R
is minimal. This appendix only provides the basic elements of the coding; for
the full code please see the website which accompanies this book.