Traumatic brain injury
Physiological and/or anatomical disruption of connections between some nerve cells in the brain may occur. The blows received during boxing cause the brain to move within the skull, damaging blood vessels, nerves and brain tissue. Boxing can cause various injuries, which have led the British Medical Association to campaign for it to be banned, starting with a ban for children under 16 years, who are most likely to be unaware of the risks such as long-term brain impairment and may therefore be unable to give informed consent. Most cases of concussion resolve completely without any long-lasting effects. However, a few seem to leave some persisting loss of function or change in personality possibly because of undetected persisting subtle brain damage—this can be called post-concussional syndrome’. Long-term symptoms may include headache, dizziness, memory deficits, slowness of thought, poor concentration, communication problems, inability to work and problems with self-care.