chapter  13
12 Pages


Introduction Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation following loss of ovarian activity. The average age at which menopause occurs is 50-51 years, although it can occur earlier among smokers, those who are thin, and those who live at high altitudes (Bachmann 2004). The terms ‘menopause transition’, ‘climacteric’, and ‘perimenopause’ are used to describe the months and years around the last menstrual period.