chapter  7
Alcohol and Substance Use and Dependence
Pages 14

Alcohol and substance use and dependence is characterized by the excessive use of alcohol or subtances, withdrawal symptoms, increased tolerance, craving, salience of the substance-seeking behavior, narrowing of the drug use repertoire, and impairments in social and occupational functioning. Alcohol and substance dependence are associated with road traffi c accidents, head injury, infections, and vitamin and nutritional deficiencies. The excessive use of alcohol and substances affects many systems in the body, particularly liver function.