Pharmaceutical services in developing countries face particular challenges that are significantly different from those faced by pharmacists in the so-called First World. A major teaching hospital has developed a programme on rational drug use, developing a hospital formulary, guidelines for rational diagnosis and treatment guidelines for the rational use of antibiotics. In addition to work to strengthen the evidence base, there is a proposal to encourage the development of Cochrane reviews for drugs that do not have systematic review evidence. Poverty may force patients to purchase one day's supply of medicines at a time, so it is important to ensure that antibiotics are used rationally and not just for one or two days' treatment. Evidence-based practice is one of the ways in which these problems can be minimised. Potentially, one of the greatest benefits of the Internet is the possibility of ending knowledge poverty and in turn influencing all the factors that undermine wellbeing.