Evidence-based medicine (EBM) relies on the use of a structured appraisal method to determine the value of any research conducted and the resultant publications. EBM raises a number of issues. This chapter is a practical introduction to these issues. The debate about the metric used to measure EBM has profound consequences on the effects of EBM. This debate includes the ethical and political dimensions of EBM, as well as its clinical effects. Controlled trials have shown that evidence-based methods improve the decision-making skills of medical students and integrate the students more rapidly into clinical practice. Trials of EBM require long-term follow-up and large numbers of patients. One of the major benefits claimed by EBM is its potential for influencing and improving medical education. In studies conducted in routine clinical settings it has been shown that many decisions made by doctors can be supported by clinical evidence.