The planning phase of the patient’s treatment journey involves the development of a care plan for the patient based on their needs. Care planning provides a “road map” of the patient’s treatment journey and is a key component of structured alcohol and drug treatment interventions. The first step in care planning is the accurate and comprehensive assessment that should form the key elements for decisions about health care interventions, care and support. The principles of care planning are based on the holistic needs of the individual, setting of the goals of treatment, targets to be achieved, interventions or treatment modalities to be provided and responsibility and accountability of the agency and professional in the delivery of the interventions. A comprehensive care plan should be agreed upon with the patient and cover the patient’s need as identified in one or more of four key domains: drug and alcohol misuse; physical and psychological health; offending behaviour and social functioning. The effectiveness of the care plan is based on the engagement of the service user throughout the assessment and care planning process and the client must be actively involved in the formulation of the care plan.