Psychosocial and pharmacological interventions
There is a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for the treatment of alcohol and drug misuse. Psychosocial interventions encompass a wide range of treatment strategies such as brief interventions, counselling, cognitive behavioural therapy, family therapy, social skills training, supportive work and complementary therapy. Pharmacological interventions are categorised as detoxification, medications for relapse prevention and nutritional supplements. There is evidence to suggest that drug misuse treatment is effective in terms of reduced substance misuse; improvements in personal and social functioning; reduced public health and safety risks; reduced criminal behaviour; reductions in drinking and alcohol problems and reduce longer-term health costs of problem drinkers. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recommended that drug services should introduce contingency management programmes to reduce illicit drug use and/or promote engagement with services for people receiving methadone maintenance treatment. Complementary therapies can be of great value in substance misuse services. Effective pharmacological treatment involves prescribing a spectrum of medications. Methadone treatments are the most widely used type of treatment for opiate addiction throughout the world.