chapter  8
Differentiated Citizenship in Differentiated Housing, 1948–2005
Pages 31

Israeli citizenship, as defined in its declaration of independence, promises equality regardless of religion, gender or nationality.1 To override this proclamation of equality, the Israeli nation-state devised a system of differentiated citizenship in order to distinguish between several classes of citizens, similar in concept to the Brazilian system described by Holston:

Israel’s system of differentiated citizenship has been discussed through the lens of ethnicity (Yiftachel, 2006), and social class has been framed extensively as a marker of ethnicity in scholarly and popular debate (Yiftachel, 2006; Yacobi, 2007b; AharonGutman, 2014). Aspects of Israel’s differentiated citizenship have been the focus of studies of the consequences of Israeli statehood for various publics vis à vis access to education, positions of power in society and cultural marginalization (Svirsky, 1981; Shohat, 1988; Shadar, 2006). This chapter argues, however, that one’s class of Israeli citizenship is based primarily on one’s access to ‘proper’ housing, manifest to a great extent in housing architecture.