Within the framework of developing social movements, this chapter focuses on the historical context surrounding the Maccabean Revolt. The developing monotheistic identity became a critical cornerstone for the Maccabean Revolt, which was a turning point in Judean history, one commemorated in the annual observance of Hanukkah. The major development in the Judaism of the Second Temple and rabbinic periods is the democratization of religion. In the midst of growing sectarian division, rabbinic Judaism changed the collective face of Judaism by emphasizing the role of a teacher above that of a priest. There seems to be a clear or obvious link to the described status of the high priest and the possibility of political rule. The individual Israelite had little role, since the priests, the only one allowed to enter the sacrificial area, officiated on behalf of the people of Israel.