chapter  7
19 Pages

Racism in America and in Other Race-Centered Nation-States: Synchronic Considerations

WithJohn H. Stanfield

Racism in its various forms is most fundamentally a synchronized political, economic, and structural problem rooted in complex historical and cultural processes and produced and stabilized through a number of psychological complexes. Racism as a central aspect of human development in America and in other race-centered societies has two dimensions, racialism and racial discrimination. Racialism as a product of developmental and everyday socialization composed of the mundane ways in which verbal and non-verbal language and unconscious behavior are used in categorizing people in racial terms. Racial discrimination is the aspect of racism we are the most familiar with and which has received the most attention of policy-makers. Social organization leaders change the racial discrimination traditions and customs when they want to for any number of personal or vested interest reasons. Elite racism is more difficult to pin down not because there is no evidence to be found but because the author's are not accustomed of thinking about elites in American society.