This chapter examines some issues around a very important aspect of Nubian history: the rise of an independent Kushite Kingdom following nearly 500 years of Egyptian domination of Nubia (from ca. 1550-1070 BC), the origins of its ruling family, and, most importantly, how Egyptologists have explained these changes. In Nubian studies this period (roughly 1070-600 BC) has become known as the ‘Kingdom of Kush’, the ‘Kurru Kingdom’, or the ‘Napatan’ period or Kingdom. The last, Napatan, is the term preferred in the older literature (along with the now obsolete ‘Ethiopian’), and will be used here. These Kushite kings became powerful enough to conquer Egypt, where their rule is known as the twenty-fifth Dynasty (very broadly 750-650 BC). The twenty-fifth Dynasty is generally considered to be the last included in the Egyptian Third Intermediate Period (twenty-first to twenty-fifth Dynasties, broadly 1070-650 BC), a period of disunity in which dynasties of Libyan origin dominated much of the country.