Chapter 1 discusses the extreme weather events of 2017 and notes that we have entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, based on the impacts that humans have had on the planet. Specifically, human impacts are such that we have changed the climate and are currently in an era of climate change. Next, Chapter 1 briefly introduces the theoretical framework that will be used throughout the book. Then, some of the major political controversies related to environmental policy are discussed, including values, issue definitions, property rights, transactions costs, and the politics of regulatory policy. Finally, Chapter 1 concludes with an overview of the book, including each chapter.