This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses that education is argued to be central to development, and is reflected in both the Millennium Development Goals and sustainable development Goals, yet is little taught in development studies departments. It shows how many different educational traditions have existed. Human capital theory and rate of return analysis have been incredibly powerful in influencing national and international education policy processes, and particularly in driving the global growth of primary schooling. The book suggests that the orthodox view draws most heavily on human capital arguments. It argues that education can be treated as a fundamental right. The book highlights the danger of seeing education simply as a good thing. It considers the tension between education's transformative and reproductive tendencies cautions against much optimism regarding the power of the former.