Structure and culture
Organizations are social entities, existing solely for and comprised of individuals. We as people fulfill our own goals by participating in organizations. They are constructed, artificial things, designed by people. The difficult decision is how to design tasks and break them down into units that individuals can manage. There are three specific criteria for robust organizational design: effectiveness, efficiency, and viability. Effectiveness suggests that the organization (the group of people working together) “realizes its purpose and accomplishes its goals... An organization is efficient if it utilizes the least amount of resources necessary to obtain its products or services… [and] An organization is viable if it exists over a long period of time” (Burton & Obel, 2005, p. 4). Over time, organizations tend to become larger, more cumbersome, more formalized, and departmentalized creations.