Tanzania provides a look at two cases in one: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' (UNHCR) role with Burundian refugees that fled in 1972 and with Burundian refugees that fled in the 1990s. This chapter briefly outlines the relevant postindependence history that has informed UNHCR's evolution in Tanzania and the disposition of the state toward refugees. It then focuses on the different ways UNHCR domesticated in the two cases, as an advisor and partner to the government for the 1972 Burundian refugees and as a surrogate state for the 1990s Burundian refugees. The chapter considers the conditions and motives for these different roles and then analyzes the levels of influence UNHCR had on Tanzanian behavior toward refugees. As predicted by the framework, the different roles produced very different levels of influence. In particular, UNHCR's surrogacy led to less influence.