chapter  X
THE VIRTUES OF A ROMAN EMPEROR
Pages 29

MoralValuesintheAncientWorld asforward.1Itmaybeapproximatelysaidthatofthevirtueshere enumeratedtwopredominantlyrefertopastevents,twoprognosticatethefuture.Wehavealreadyseenvirtusandpietasaspart ofthetraditionalRomancharacter.ItwasAugustus'aimtoseem torestorethis,aspartoftheseemingrestorationoftheRepublic. Butvalourandpatriotismweredesirablequalitiestofosterforthe futureaswell.Further,inhispublicpolicyAugustuswasa genuinetraditionalist.Onthewholehewasaconservativeby temperament;hewasseekingstability;andhewasseekingto rehabilitatethosequalitieswhichhadmadeRomemistressofthe world.Wefmd,saysAdcock,

'inthefirstyearsoftheAugustanageaconsciousnessofthe greatnessoftheRepublic.IntheearlybooksofLivy,intheOdes ofHorace,andintheGeorgicsandAeneidthereisheardagain andagainthenoteofprideinthepast,ofbeliefinthepeopleof ItalyandinthesoundoldqualitiesoftheRepublicanworthies.'2

Hencehissimilarcaretorestorereligiousformsandobservances. FinallyvirtusandpietasspokedirectlyofAugustus'ownpast.He wasnotasoldier;heowedhisvictoriestoAgrippa.Buthehadto appearhimselfasconqueror.Itmustbehewhohadwonhisvictoriesbycourageousgeneralship,whenAntony,theleadingcommanderoftheday,hadfledignominiouslyfromActium.Inthe widersphereofvirtushehadastonishinglyshownmanlyqualities whilestillalad;weareliabletoforgetthathewasonlyeighteen atthetimeofCaesar'smurder.Intheyearsthatfollowedonly once,underdefeatfromSextusPompeius,didheflinchfromthat inexorablepurposeandindomitableambitionwhichwereto makehimruleroftheworld.Pietastoolookedtothepast.How farloveorhonourofthedeadJuliustrulyspurredhimonwecannotnowtell.Itshouldhavedone.HetookthenameofCaesar, andAntonyremarkedbitterlythattheyoungmanowedeverythingtohisname;therewasenoughtruthintheremarktomake itbarbed.Certainitisthatitwasinthenameofdutyandof