Political developments in Russia before Yeltsin dissolved parliament in September 1993 have become more obscure and difficult to understand with the passage of time. Moreover, with the support of Russian ruling circles, myths concerning the nature of the political process during this period have begun to spread, complicating even more a much-needed analysis of what happened. Without a clear understanding of the character of the power structure and of the activity of different political bodies during this, the first period of postcommunist development in Russia, it is harder to discern even the outlines of a new stage in the dramatic process of state-building in this country. The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to such an understanding by offering answers to the following questions: What was the nature of the political system in Russia during the First Republic of 1991-93? What were the roots of the political crisis during this period? And what was the role of parliament in this crisis?