But this positive attitude towards Western pollution control efforts is offset by a second tendency. The essays convey a strong sense of inadequacy and uncertainty expressed in doubts that the former communist countries will in fact be able to realize the Western model. All are skeptical of any immediate possibility of improvements in environmental management. All stress the enormity of the problems. Indeed, each chapter tends to overwhelm us with its recitation of difficulties, so that we lose confidence in the new democracies' ability to confront them. While the incorrectness and injustice of the former regimes are never questioned, there seems to be little faith in the capabilities of democracy and the market economy to remedy the situation.