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For reviews of various estimates of the toll o f the famine, see Jasper Becker, Hungry Ghosts: C hina’s Secret Famine (London: John Murray, 1996), ch. 18; and Dali L. Yang, Calamity and Reform in China: State, Rural Society, and Institutional Change Since the Great Leap Famine (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996), pp. 37-38. See also Thomas B ernstein’s careful assessment completed a decade earlier, “Stalinism, Famine, and Chinese Peasants: Grain Procurements during the Great Leap Forward,” Theory and Society, May 1984. For a recent PRC assessment placing the likely toll in the lower end of this range, see the article by Li Chengrui of the State Statistical Bureau in Zhonggong dangshi yanjiu [Research on CCP History, hereafter ZGDSYJ], no. 2 (1997), pp. 1-14.