The Way of the Buddha
This chapter examines the various theories of causality and has shown some of the philosophical debate characterizing traditional efforts to support a favored theory. At the heart of Indian philosophy lies the perception of human bondage and suffering and the recognition that liberation from these conditions is possible. Indian philosophies also differ from Greek and European philosophy by their emphasis on insight, personal experience, and scriptural authority rather than ordinary perception or reasons fundamental sources of truth. The teachings of the Vedas or Upaniads, or of the Buddha or Mahvra, may be taken to embody the highest truth and reveal the surest way to liberation, but they must be interpreted, clarified, and defended against attacks from every quarter. The Vedntic nondualism of akara and the Vedntic dualism of Madhva are quite different systems of philosophy. Mmms philosophy takes its stand on the ritual or injunctive portion of the Veda, holding that ritual action constitutes the primary effective means of liberation.