chapter  11
21 Pages

Devotional Hinduism: Kalı and Shiva

This chapter discusses Renaissance in India. The establishment of British rule brought Western ideas of rationality, liberty, progress, individualism, nationalism, humanitarian ethics, and social reform. The attraction of India to the European powers was trade. At first it was primarily spices that India offered, but soon calico, silks, indigo, and saltpeter became important items of trade. The British learned much from Dupleix, and when, by 1757, Clives leadership had secured British victory over the French and had defeated the Indian armies of Siraj-ud-Daula at the battle of Plassey, the position of the British in India was secure. The British, like the other European colonial powers, had come to India for the sake of trade. But wars in Europe, America, and India convinced them that trade could be secured only through political control. Included were provisions for reorganizing the military and civil services and for land ownership by the Zamindari tax collectors.