Understanding, assessing and addressing difficulties in cognition and learning
The chapter focuses on the second of the broad areas of need outlined in the Code of Practice in both England and Wales: cognition and learning. It looks particularly at the kinds of challenges faced by young children identified as experiencing 'moderate' and more profound difficulties in learning, and exemplifies the discussion with difficulties associated with Down's syndrome. The chapter also looks at what is often called a 'specific learning difficulty', a term that is used in the Codes of Practice to relate to a particular area of learning and not to overall attainment and cognitive ability terminology. It also discusses one example of a specific learning difficulty: dyslexia. Dyslexia among learners in educational contexts is known as 'developmental dyslexia', as opposed to dyslexia that is acquired as a result of brain injury. Purposeful listening to a child's reading provides a useful opportunity to assess and monitor the acquisition of reading.