The History of the Irish Famine
DOI link for The History of the Irish Famine
The History of the Irish Famine book
The History of the Irish Famine
DOI link for The History of the Irish Famine
The History of the Irish Famine book
The Great Irish Famine remains one of the most lethal famines in modern world history and a watershed moment in the development of modern Ireland – socially, politically, demographically and culturally. In the space of only four years, Ireland lost twenty-five per cent of its population as a consequence of starvation, disease and large-scale emigration. Certain aspects of the Famine remain contested and controversial, for example the issue of the British government’s culpability, proselytism, and the reception of emigrants. However, recent historiographical focus on this famine has overshadowed the impact of other periods of subsistence crisis, both before 1845 and after 1852.
The narratives of those who perished, those who survived and those who emigrated form an integral part of this history and these volumes will make available, for the first time, some of the original documentation relating to an event that changed not only Irish history, but the history of the countries to which the emigrants fled – Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia. By bringing together letters, government reports, diaries, official documents, pamphlets, newspaper articles, sermons, eye-witness testimonies, poems and novels, these volumes will provide a fresh way of understanding Irish history in general, and famine and migration in particular. Comprehensive editorial apparatus and annotation of the original texts are included along with bibliographies, appendices, chronologies and indexes that point the way for further study.
Volume I: Attenuated Apparitions of Humanity: The Great Famine in Ireland.
Edited by Christine Kinealy
Table of Contents
Part 1. Poverty and Perspectives: Ireland before 1845
1. George Nicholls Esq., Poor Laws — Ireland. Three Reports by George Nicholls, Esq., to her Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department (British Parliamentary Papers, 1836-1838)
2. Lydia Jane Fisher, Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry in the Year 1845, Preface and Letter VIII(1845)
3. Reports of Messrs. Kane, Lindley and Playfair, Commissioners, On the Potatoe [sic] Disease (1845)
Part 2. The Potato Blight Examined
4. Mansion House Committee, Reports of the Mansion House Committee on the Potato Disease in 1845 (1846).
5.Alfred Smee, On the cause of the Potato Disease: Aphis Vastator (1846, 1847 and 1878).
Part 3. Appeals, Prays and Philanthropy
6. Dr John Edgar, A Cry for Connaught (October 1846).
7. Queen Victoria, The Queen’s Letter for Ireland (January 1847).
8. Bishop John Hughes, A Lecture on the Antecedent Causes of the Irish Famine in 1847 (New York, March 1847).
Part 4. Visitors to Ireland
9. Elihu Burritt, A journal of a visit of three days to Skibbereen, and its neighbourhood (February 1847).
10. William Bennett, Six Weeks in Ireland (March and April 1847).
Part 5. Official Response and Reaction
11. Isaac Butt, A Voice for Ireland, the Famine in the Land. What has been done and what is to be done (April 1847).
12. Charles E. Trevelyan, The Irish Crisis: being a narrative of the measures for the relief of the distress caused by the great Irish famine of 1846-7 (January 1848).
Part 6. Reflections and Regrets
13. W. R. Wilde, Irish Popular Superstitions: Preface and pages 9-12, 72-75(1852).
14. S. Reynolds Hole, A Little Tour in Ireland by an Oxonian, Chapter V (1859).
15. John Mitchel, The Last Conquest of Ireland. Chapter xxiv (Dublin: Irishman Office, 1861).
Part 7. A Poetic Ending
16. George Francis Train, Epigram on Three cheers for the Famine in George Francis Train, The People’s Candidate for President, 1872 (1872).
Vol. 2. Irish Famine Migration Narratives: Eyewitness Testimonies
Edited by Jason King
Table of Contents
Part 1. Irish Famine Migration Narratives
1. Stephen De Vere to T.F. Eliot, 30 November, 1847, Minutes of Evidence before Select Committee on Colonisation from Ireland, British Parliamentary Papers, Emigration, v 5, pp. 45-48.
2. Stephen De Vere, unpublished ‘America Journals’ 1847-1848 (Trinity College Dublin Manuscripts Department, MSS 5061-5062).
3. John Burke, ‘Reminiscences’, or ‘Migration of Seven Brothers’ (MS John Burke, ‘Reminiscences’, New York Historical Society Library, New York, 1891).
4. John Young, ‘Diary of John Young’ (Nancy Mallett Archive and Museum of St. James’ Cathedral, Toronto).
5. Robert Whyte, The Ocean Plague: A Voyage to Quebec in an Irish Emigrant Vessel, Embracing A Quarantine at Grosse Isle in 1847. With Notes Illustrative of the Ship-Pestilence of that Fatal Year. By a Cabin Passenger (Boston: Coolidge and Wiley, 1848).
6. Herman Melville, Redburn: His First Voyage (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1849).
7. William Smith, An Emigrant’s Narrative, Or, A Voice from the Steerage: Being a Brief Account of the Sufferings of the Emigrants in the Ship ‘India,’ on Her Voyage from Liverpool to New-York, in the Winter of 1847-8, Together with a Statement of the Cruelties Practiced Upon the Emigrants in the Staten Island Hospital (New York: Published by the Author, 1850).
8. Henry Johnson to Jane Johnson, 18 September 1848, in L. Wyatt (ed.), ‘The Johnson Letters’, Ontario History (1948), pp. 7-52, on pp. 34-38.
9. Jane White to Eleanor, 29 June, 1849. Public Record Office of Northern Ireland. D.1195/3/5, 8B, 9-15.
10. Sir Robert Gore-Booth Letters (1846-1849), Appendix x, Minutes of Evidence before Select Committee on Colonisation from Ireland, Submitted by Sir Robert Gore Booth, British Parliamentary Papers, Emigration, v 5, pp. 122-132.
11. Henry David Thoreau, The Shipwreck, Putnam’s Monthly 5.30 (1855), pp. 632–637.
Part 2. Eyewitness Testimonies: Famine Irish Caregivers
12. Grey Nuns, or Sisters of Charity, Famine Annal, Ancien Journal, vol. I. Translated by Jean-François Bernard.
13. Grey Nuns, or Sisters of Charity, Famine Annal, Ancien Journal, vol. II. The Typhus of 1847. Translated by Philip O’Gorman.
14. Grey Nuns, or Sisters of Charity, Famine Annals, Foundation of St. Patrick’s Orphan Asylum (1849). Translated by Philip O’Gorman.
15. Anon. The Emigrant Ship. Written for the Protestant Orphan Bazaar. The Literary Garland, and the British North American Magazine (Montreal: Lowell and Gibson, 1850).
16. Fr. Bernard O’Reilly to Quebec Mercury (27 July, 1847).
17. Fr. Bernard O’Reilly, testimony for Report of the Special Committee appointed to inquire into the management of the Quarantine Station at Grosse Isle,…on behalf of the Board of Health of the City of Montreal (23 July 1847). Canada. Legislature. Legislative Assembly. Special Committee Appointed to Inquire into the Management of the Quarantine Station at Grosse Isle.
18. Fr. Bernard O’Reilly, ‘Settlement of the Eastern Townships’, Quebec Mercury (30 March. 1848).
19. Fr. Bernard O’Reilly, ‘The Irish Emigration of 1847’, True Witness and Catholic Chronicle (17 December 1852).
20. Fr. Bernard O’Reilly The Mirror of True Womanhood; A Book of Instruction for Women in the World (1877), pp. 96-99.
21. John Francis Maguire, The Irish in America (New York: D & J Sadlier and Co, 1868), pp. 134-153.
22. Robert Walsh to Bishop of Kilkenny, (1857). (Archives du Séminaire de Nicolet, F091/B1/5/2 & F091/B1/5/3). Translated by Jason King.
23. Thomas Quinn, ‘Une Voix d’Irlande’, in Premier Congrès de La Langue Français au Canada. Québec 24-30 Juin 1912 (Québec, 1913), pp. 227-232. Translated by Jason King.
Volume 3. Ireland’s Forgotten Famines, c. 1700-1900.
Christine Kinealy and Gerard Moran
Table of Contents
Part 1. The Crises of the Late 1720s.
1. The Letters of Hugh Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh (1727-1729). Four letters by Hugh Boulter from, Letters written by His Excellency Hugh Boulter, D.D., Lord Primate of all Ireland, &c.to several ministers of state in England, and some others: containing an account of the most interesting transactions which passed in Ireland from 1724 to 1738, second volume (Dublin; G. Faulkner and J. Williams, 1770).
Part 2. The Famine of 1740 to 1741. ‘The Year of Slaughter’.
2. Reports from English newspapers.
Stamford Mercury, 17 January 1740
Ipswich Journal, 16 February 1740
Derby Mercury, 17 April 1740
Ipswich Journal, 26 April 1740
Ipswich Journal, 31 May 1740
Ipswich Journal, 14 June 1740
Derby Mercury, 6 August 1740
Stamford Mercury, 23 October 1740
Ipswich Journal, 20 December 1740
Derby Mercury, 25 December 1740
Ipswich Journal, 7 March 1741
Newcastle Courant, 1 August 1741
Newcastle Courant, 9 January 1742
3. Anon, The Groans of Ireland: in a letter to a Member of Parliament (Dublin: George Faulkner, 1741).
Part 3. The Famine of 1816 and 1817.
4. Distilleries – Scarcity of Provisions in Ireland’ in Hansard, House of Commons Debates, 10 March 1817, vol. 35 cc. 917-20.
5. ‘Distilleries’, Hansard, House of Lords Debates, 14 March 1817, vol. 35, cc. 1079-80.
Part 4. The Famine of 1822. British and Irish Philanthropy (1822 and 1823)
6. Scarcity of Provisions in Ireland’, Hansard, House of Commons Debates, 29 April 1822, vol. 7 cc.146-50.
7. Reports from various newspapers.
Belfast News-Letter, 28 February 1823
Freeman’s Journal, 3 December 1823
Freeman’s Journal, 10 December 1823
Extracts from The First Report of the British and Irish Ladies’ Society, for improving the Condition and promoting the Industry and Welfare of the Female Peasantry of Ireland, reprinted in the Connaught Journal,27 November 1823
Extracts from the Ladies’ Correspondence on the Clothing sent to Ireland (from: Report of the Committee for the Relief of the Distressed Districts in Ireland: appointed at a general meeting held at the City of London Tavern, on the 7th of May, 1822, with an appendix).
Part 5. Famine in the 1830s.
8. ‘Famine in a Fertile Land’; Reports in the Newspapers (1831)
The Telegraph or Connaught Ranger, 1 June 1831
Connaught Telegraph, 12 July 1831
Telegraph or Connaught Ranger, 1 June 1831
Telegraph and Connaught Ranger, 22 June 1831
Part 6. The Crises of the 1860s.
9. Henry Coulter, The West of Ireland: Its Existing Condition and Prospects (Dublin: Hodges & Smith and London: Hurst & Blackett, 1862), pp. 21-37.
10. The Famine from Parliamentary Papers (1862):
‘Question and Explanation’, Hansard, House of Common Debates, 14 February 1862, vol. 165, cc. 267-70.
‘Distress in Ireland’, Hansard, House of Commons Debates, 21 February 1862, vol. 165, cc. 548-92.
‘Irish Distress Observations’, Hansard, House of Commons Debates, 2 May 1862, vol. 166, cc. 1134-83.
11. Reports of the Mansion-House Committee for the Relief of Distress in Ireland, 1862; and of the Central Relief Committee, 1862-1863 (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1862).
Part 7. Distress in the West in 1867 and 1869.
12. Correspondence from the Clifden Poor Law Guardians (Galway County Library, Clifden Poor Law Minute Book, week ending 18 May 1867).
13. The Irish Times Commissioner’s report from Connemara and west Mayo, September 1869, stating the condition of the peasantry, Irish Times, 29 September 1869.
Part 8. The Forgotten Famine, 1879-81
14. Petition from the Claremorris Board of Guardians to the Lord Lieutenant (Freeman’s Journal, 4 October 1879).
15. ‘Letter from Maurice Brooks, M.P. on the distress and suggesting measures such as the provision of houses for farmers and labourers, to counteract it’, Freeman’s Journal, 4 October 1879.
16. ‘In the West’, Nation, 1 November 1879.
17.‘Declaration of the Catholic hierarchy calling on the government to introduce relief measures, other than the Poor Law, to save the people’, Freeman’s Journal, 29 October 1879.
18.‘Letter of Patrick Greally, outlining the level of distress in his parish, and advocating emigration as the panacea to the perennial destitution of the people,’ Nation, 10 January 1880.
19. John Donovan to Edward McCabe (Dublin Diocesan Archives, McCabe Papers, Secular priests, 3 January 1880).
20.Speech by Rev. Patrick Coyne, Catholic Administrator of the parish of Killanin, who chaired the local Land League meeting in November 1879, highlighting conditions in the parish’, Nation, 22 November 1879.
21.Report of distress in the parish of Geesala, Co. Mayo from Rev. Patrick McHugh, C.C., the local priest, to E. Dwyer Gray, Lord Mayor of Dublin (Dublin City Archives, Mansion House Relief Committee Papers, 1880; ch/1/15/1).
22.Vere Foster’s letter to Charles Stewart Parnell (P.R.O. N.I., Vere Foster Papers, 10 January 1880).
23.Letter from Bishop Francis MacCormack to E. D. Dwyer Gray, Lord Mayor of Dublin (Dublin City Archives, Mansion House Relief Committee Papers, ch/1/10/g142, 27 January 1880).
24.‘Report from the Glenties Poor Law Union, Co. Donegal’, James H. Tuke, Irish Distress and its Remedies. The Land Question: A Visit to Donegal and Connaught in the Spring of 1880 (London: W. Ridgeway, 1880), pp. 9-24.
25. Bishop James Donnelly of Clogher to Archbishop Edward McCabe of Dublin (Dublin Diocesan Archives, McCabe Papers, Relief of Distress, 1879-8, 17 February 1880).
26. James Redpath, to Archbishop Edward McCabe of Dublin inquiring into the state of destitution and famine in the country (Dublin Diocesan Archives, McCabe Papers, Relief of Distress Papers, 15 March 1880).
27.Resolutions of the Charitable Irish Society in Boston (Minutes of Massachusetts Historical Society, Charitable Irish Society Papers, 17 March 1880).
28.Evidence of Rev. Canon Timothy Brosnan of Caherciveen, Co. Kerry (Report of Her Majesty’s Commissioners of Inquiry into the Working of the Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act, 1870, and the Acts Amending the Same, iii, HC 1881 xix (c – 2779 ii), pp. 793-797).
29.Bishop John McDonald of Aberdeen to Archbishop Edward McCabe of Dublin (Dublin Diocesan Archive, McCabe Papers, Relief of Distress Papers, 26 February 1880).
30.‘Second Report of Mr. J. A. Fox,’ in J. A. Fox, Reports on the Condition of the Peasantry of the County of Mayo during the Famine Crisis of 1880 (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1880), pp. 24-38.
31. Report from Swineford, Co. Mayo from representative of the Mansion House Relief Committee, July 1880. Report of Dr. George Sigerson and Dr. Kenny on the Fever in the Western Districts (Dublin City Archives, Mansion House Relief Committee Papers, CH1/4/p. 34, July 1880).
32.‘Outbreak of Fever’, Connaught Telegraph, 26 June 1880.
33.Report from Captain Digby Morant on the distribution of relief on the West Coast of Ireland, August 1880, in Reference to Relief of Distressed Population on the West Coast of Ireland (H.C. 1880, lxii, 195, pp. 1-5).
34. Report of the Joint Committee, selected from the Committee of the Duchess of Marlborough Relief Fund and the Dublin Mansion House Fund for the Relief of Distress in Ireland, to administer the sum of 100,000 Dollars, voted by the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada, towards the Relief of Distress in Ireland (H.C. 1881, 326, lxxv), pp. 3-4.
35.Letter from the Parish Priest of Enniscrone, Co. Sligo on the girls assisted to emigrate to North America under the Vere Foster scheme (Second Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Land Law (Ireland); together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence and Appendix, HC 1882 (379) xi).
36.Illustration of the vessel the Nestorian which carried 650 of the Tuke emigrants and how the scheme was seen by people in North America. The illustration indicates paupers and the workhouse on a boat arriving into Boston. Harper’s Weekly, 28 (Apr.) April 1883.
37. Fanny Parnell’s, ‘Hold the Harvest’ (1880) and ‘The Hovels of Ireland’ (1880).
Part 9. The Crises of the 1880s and 1890s
38.MEMORANDA of STATEMENT made to His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by the Catholic Prelates of Connaught, relative to the Destitution in their respective Dioceses (Connaught Telegraph, 9 January 1883).
39.Report from December 1885 on how Irish servant girls in Boston remit money back to Ireland to help their families (Boston Daily Globe, 14 December 1885).
40. The recollections from Henry Robinson of the government response to the crisis of 1885-1886. Henry Robinson, Memories: Wise and Otherwise (London: Cassell and Co., 1923).
41. Evidence of Rev. T. Flannery of Clifden to the Poor Relief (Ireland) Inquiry on the 13
42.Report of the distress and problems with the potato crop in the Partry area of Co. Mayo from the meeting of the Ballinrobe Board of Guardians. (Connaught Telegraph, 17 Apr. 1886).
43.Memorial to the Right Honourable the Chief Secretary, from the Mt. Partry and Maumtrasna Districts, calling for Relief Works.
44.Achill and West of Ireland Seed-Fund’ in J.H. Tuke, Reports and Papers relating to the Proceedings of the Committee of ‘Mr. Tuke’s Fund,’ For assisting Emigration from Ireland, during the years 1882, 1883, and 1884. Also Report on Distribution of Seed Potatoes in Achill and West of Ireland, in 1886, with suggestions for Permanent Relief; and Letters from Donegal and reports of Success of Emigrants, 1889 (London, 1889), pp. 1-15
45. Letter from Rev. Michael Mahony telling how the Tuke emigrants from Connemara were progressing well in Minnesota. Reports and Papers relating to the Proceedings of the Committee of ‘Mr. Tuke’s Fund,’ For assisting Emigration from Ireland, during the years 1882, 1883, and 1884. Also Report on Distribution of Seed Potatoes in Achill and West of Ireland, in 1886, with suggestions for Permanent Relief; and Letters from Donegal and reports of Success of Emigrants, 1889 (London, 1889).
46.Letter of James Hack Tuke to the London Times in 1889 suggesting investment in railway construction in Donegal (Times, 28 May, 1889).
47. ‘Famine’, from A Servant of the Queen by Maud Gonne MacBride (London: Victor Gollancz, 1938).
48. Maud Gonne, ‘THE FAMINE QUEEN’ (United Irishman, 7 April 1900).
Volume IV. The Exodus: Emigration and the Great Famine
Edited by Gerard Moran
Table of Contents
Part 1. The Exodus.
1. Petition from Margaret Cassidy to William Stewart Trench, dated April1846 (PRO,NI, Shirley Papers, D3531/A).
2. Report from Belmullet, Co. Mayo of emigrants leaving on the Unity bound for North America citing the reasons they were leaving, Mayo Telegraph, 22 April 1846.
3. Petition from the labourers from the Rattibarren barony, Co. Sligo to the government outlining their poverty. Appendix to Minutes take before the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Colonisation, HC 1847 (737 – ii) vi, p. 197.
4. Letter of James Prendergast in Milltown, Co. Kerry to his son, Thomas, in Boston. Shelly Barber (ed), The Prendergast Letters: Correspondence from Famine-Era Ireland, 1840-1850 (Amherst & Boston, 2006), pp 130-32.
5. Newspaper account of the large-scale emigration from Ireland in 1849 and the opportunities that exist in the United States for emigrants. London Times, January 1849
6. Labourers in Co. Mayo contribute to a general emigration fund. Galway Mercury, 17 April 1852.
7. Report members of the Achill Church Mission Society Colony leaving for North America. Galway Vindicator, 17 May 1854.
8. Report from County Kerry of people emigrating who were forced the families to leave. Kerry Examiner, 27 June 1854.
Part 2. Support for Emigration as a Solution to Famine
9. Pamphlet from John Robert Godley and signed by 83 Irish noblemen calling on the British Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, to implement a scheme of colonization of pauper Irish families to North America. Appendix to Minutes of Evidence before the Select Committee on Colonization from Ireland, HC 1847-8 (737-ii), xl.
10. Correspondence between Adam Ferrie and Joseph Kincaid in relation to emigrants that were sent out from Lord Palmerston’s estate from Co. Sligo to Quebec in 1847. Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC 1847-8 (932), xlvii, pp 35, 42.
11. Correspondence and report in relation to Irish emigrants to New Brunswick in 1847. Papers relative to the Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC 1847-8 (932), xlvii, pp 49-55.
12. Suggestions as to how emigration should be put in place, especially that of tenants who were assisted by their landlords. Limerick Reporter, 12 September 1848
13. Attempts to encourage emigration by landowners and the gentry, and in particular to influence government officials, especially after 1847. NLI, Monteagle Papers (Ms 13400 (2) (Letter from Lord Monteagle to Lord Clarendon, dated 21 October 1848).
14. Meeting in Cavan in September, 1849 to promote emigration to Australia, Nation, 8 September 1849.
15. Speech by Lord Monteagle in the House of Lords on the emigration provisions in the Poor Relief (Ireland) Bill. Hansard, Louse of Lords Debates, vol. 107 (dated 13 July, 1849), cc 312-3.
16. Suggestions to intending emigrants to North America from Thomas D’Arcy McGee. Armagh Guardian, 23 April 1849.
17. Attempts to encourage the Irish to emigrate to Peru, Sligo Champion, 27 October, 1851.
18. Attempts to encourage Irish paupers to emigrate to Argentina, Limerick Reporter and Tipperary Vindicator, 4 March 1850.
19. Correspondence between R.A. Duncan, Poor Law Inspector for unions in county Limerick, and A. C. Buchanan, Emigration Agent in Quebec, in relation to workhouse pauper inmates sent to Canada in 1852. Papers Relative to Emigration to the North American Colonies, HC 1852-3 (1650), lxciii, pp 23-8.
Part 3. Attitude in the Colonies to the Emigration.
20. Evidence of Lt Col. Edward MacArthur to the Select Committee on Colonization from Ireland that the sending of Irish workhouse women to Australia would be a great benefit to the colony as there was a major shortage of girls as marriage partners. Minutes taken before the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Colonisation, HC 1847 (737 – ii) vi, pp 310-324.
21. Sir Randolph Routh to Sir Charles Trevelyan objecting to the proposal that two million people be sent from Ireland to Canada over a two year period, arguing that the colony was not in a position to absorb such numbers. Appendix to Minutes before the Select Committee on Colonization from Ireland, HC 1847 (737-ii), pp 34-5.
22. Report from the Emigration Agent at St John’s, New Brunswick on the tenants sent out by Sir Robert Gore Booth from his Co. Sligo estate on the Aeolus and the Yeoman. Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC 1847-8 (932), xlvii
Part 4. Experiences of the emigrants on the Atlantic Crossing.
23. Letter of Rev. Bernard McGauran to Archbishop Joseph Signay outlining the condition of the Irish Famine emigrants who arrived at Grosse Isle in May 1847. Marianna O’Gallagher and Rose Masson Dompierre (eds), Eyewitness Grosse Isle, 1847 (Quebec, 1995), pp 50-51.
24. Account from the wife of Captain Purdon of the Yeoman which sailed from Sligo to New Brunswick in June 1847 bringing tenants from Sir Robert Gore Booth’s estate. Second Report of the Select Committee of the House of Lord on Colonization from Ireland, HC 1847-8 (368), xlvii, pp 262-3.
25. Legislation enacted by the New York legislature regarding the entry of emigrants to the port of New York, and the conditions under which ship owners and masters could bring such passengers. Further Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, Part 11, HC 1849 (593-ii), xxxviii, pp 78-81.
26. Account of the condition on board the Lady Dombrain that sailed from Killybegs to St. John, New Brunswick in 1848 from officials in St John. Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC, pp 132-4.
27. Account of tenants sent from Colonel Wyndham’s estate in Co. Clare to Quebec on the "Governor" from Limerick in 1848. Papers relative to the Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC 1847-8 (971), xlvii, pp 1-3.
28. Debate in the Limerick Board of Guardians on how the female paupers from the workhouse who were sent to Australia were treated by the shipping crew on the sea voyage. Limerick Reporter, 31 July 1849.
29. Complaints by Quebec officials about the brig St. John which carried emigrants from Galway port in 1849. Further Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, pt II, HC 1849 (593-ii), xxxviii, pp 5-8.
30. Debate in the House of Lords on the treatment of passengers on board the ships traveling to Australia. Hansard. Louse of Lords Debates, vol. 108 (dated 15 February, 1850), ccs. 810-14.
31. Vere Foster’s account of conditions on board the Washington which sailed from Liverpool to New York in October 1850. Letter from Lord Hobart on Vere Foster’s statement regarding passengers on the "Washington" going to New York, H.C, 1851 (198) xl, pp 2-7.
32. Account of emigrants on the Berlin, which sailed from Westport and arrived in St. John, New Brunswick in 1851. Papers relative to Emigration to the North American Colonies, HC 1852-3, (1650), lxviii, p. 42.
Part 5. The Famine Emigrants Experiences Abroad
33. The position of Irish Catholic emigrants in Liverpool before the famine as indicated by Paul Cullen. Paul Cullen to Tobias Kirby, dated 25 June, 1842, Dublin Diocesan Archives (Cullen Papers, 1842).
34. Account of how famine emigrants from the West of Ireland arrived in Liverpool in such a poor state with little or no money. Nation, 14 November 1846, Reprinted from the Liverpool Times.
35. Fear in 1847of the large numbers of Irish emigrants flooding into Britain and in particular the ports of Liverpool and Glasgow. Manchester Guardian, 20 January 1847.
36. Report on the medical condition of emigrants in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Papers relative to Emigration to the British Provinces in North America, HC 1847–48 (932), xlvii, pp 126-8.
37. Parliamentary debate in the House of Commons on the impact which the large number of Irish pauper immigrants had on the city of Liverpool. Hansard Parliamentary Debates, xcii, (dated, 7 May 1847), cc. 424-7.
38. Influx of vast numbers of Irish poor fleeing famine put pressure on the poor law system in many towns and cities in England and Wales as seen by the situation in Manchester in December 1847. Manchester Guardian, 11 December 1847.
39. Manner in which emigrants in Liverpool were swindled. Galway Vindicator, 5 April, 1848
40. Letter from the Henigan family who left Co. Sligo in 1847 and settled in St John’s, New Brunswick before moving to and settling in Maine. Appendix to Minutes of Evidence before the Select Committee on Colonization from Ireland, HC 1847-8 (737-ii), xl, pp 122-32.
41. Some emigrants’ experience was positive and were prepared to acknowledge the support they had been given as with tenants from Lord Monteagle estate. NLI, Monteagle Papers, (Ms13,400 (2), Letter from P. Danagher, Melbourne to Lord Monteagle, dated 20 March 1848).
42. Warning from the Irish Emigrant Society of New York to those who were considering coming to New York. Armagh Guardian, 1 May 1848.
43. Newspaper account of a post mortem carried out in York in July 1848 of the McAndrew family from Co. Sligo and who had died in the city from Famine Fever. The York Herald, 10 July, 1847.
44. Report of Irish Famine emigrants in Edinburgh indicating many were diseased and the appalling living conditions they endured. Edinburgh Medical Journal, 69 (1848).
45. Letter from Margaret McCarthy to her father, Alexander McCarthy and family, who was assisted, from the Crown Estate at Kingwilliamstown, Co. Cork. Eilish Ellis, Emigrants from Ireland, 1847-1852: State-Aided Emigration Schemes from Crown Estates in Ireland (Baltimore, 1993), pp 64-7.
46. Account of how Irish emigrants fared in the large American cities. Galway Vindicator, 30 July 1853.
47. Advertisement notifying the establishment of an emigrants’ home in Liverpool in July 1851. Nation, 12 July 1851.
48. Report of Irish people who had been resident in England for a long period being sent back to Ireland when they became destitute. Nation, 2 September, 1854.
49. Report from the Chester Board of Guardians on the removal of Bridget Molloy, a widow and her six children, all born in England, who were returned to Ireland under the Act of Settlement. Evidence of J. Trevor, Chairman of the Chester Board of Guardians, Report of the Select Committee on Poor Removal, H.C 1855, p. 270.
50. Letter of H. Shire who had settled in South Africa to his brother in Shanagolden, Co. Limerick informing him of his life in Natal and the prospects for emigrating to the colony. Seventh Report from the Select Committee on the (Poor Laws) Ireland, together with minutes of evidence, HC 1849 (237), xv, pp 134-7.
51. How the forty girls sent out from Sligo workhouse on the Lady Kennaway in 1848 under the Female Orphan Scheme to Australia fared in Australia. Seventh Report from the Select Committee on the (Poor Laws) Ireland, together with minutes of evidence, HC 1849 (237), xv, pp 134-7. Sligo Journal, 30 November 1849.
52. Letter from an emigrant in Australia who had been assisted by Lord Monteagle to emigrate. NLI, Monteagle Papers (Ms 13400 (2) (Letter from Michal Martin to Lady Monteagle, dated 28 August 1850.
53. Letter from a pauper assisted by the Sligo Board of Guardians to the United States and who settled in Connecticut. Sligo Champion, 17 May 1851.
Part 6. Where to go to
54. Letter from Vere Foster to the newspapers advising potential emigrants as to the best places in the United States to settle and proposing that Illinois as the best destination for emigrants. Nation, 9 August 1851.
55. Letter from Vere Foster calling for subscriptions to help single people to emigrate, especially young females (Vere Foster Papers, PRONI).
Part 7. The Poor Law and Emigration
56. Memorial from the Kilrush Board of Guardians to the Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, advocating emigration from the workhouses as a solution to Ireland’s problems. Clare Journal, 26 November 1846.
57. Materials used in the fitting out of the 38 females sent from Ballinasloe workhouse to Australia in August, 1848. Western Star, 19 August 1848
58. Letter from Bishop T. Murphy, Chairman of the Children Apprenticeship Board to the Colonial Secretary, regarding the female workhouse paupers that had been sent out on the "Roman Emperor" in 1848. NAI, CSORP, 1848/0.3081 (Letter from Bishop T. Murphy to Lord Grey, dated, 21 November 1848).
59. Letter from Australia, 12 Jan. 1849 from Ann Kelly to her mother who lived in Donegal. NLI, Monteagle paper (Ms 13400 (2) (Letter from Ann Kelly to her mother, dated 12 January 1849).
60. Evidence of E. Senior to the Select Committee on the Poor Law, recommending emigration of young workhouse female paupers to the colonies. Third report from the Select Committee on the Poor Law (Ireland), together with minutes, HC. 1849 (137), xv, pp 113-5.
61. Proposal in the Skibbereen Board of Guardians to send female workhouse paupers to North America. Galway Vindicator, 20 December 1848.
62. Evidence of the R.J.T. Orpen to the Select Committee on the Poor Law urging that emigration be used as a panacea to the overcrowding in the workhouses. Third Report from the Select Committee on the Poor Law (Ireland), HC 1849(93) xv, p. 168.
63. Report on the females orphans who sailed from Plymouth to Australia on the Thomas Arbuthnot in October 1849. Mayo Telegraph, 20 November 1850.
64. Discussion in the Tuam Board of Guardians in October 1851 regarding contributing towards helping paupers to emigrate. Tuam Herald, 25 October 1851.
65. Names of the fifty girls sent from Mountbellew workhouse to Montreal on the Primrose in July 1853. Minutes of Mountbellew Poor Law Guardians, week ending 5 March (Galway County Council Archives, Mountbellew Poor Law minute book, November 1852-May 1853)
Part 8. Opposition to Emigration.
66. Letter from Bishop Edward Maginn of Derry condemning emigration from Ireland and those who advocated it. Nation, 17 April 1847.
67. Newspaper editorial opposing emigration, 1849. Galway Mercury, 5 May 1849.
68. Statement by Mr Horsely, a Tralee Poor Law Guardians, denouncing the sending of workhouse girls to North America. Kerry Examiner, 9 May 1854.