Blind and Low Vision
This chapter provides an overview of blindness and low vision including common eye conditions and their functional implications, terminology used in the field, identification of students, assessment, and educational programming specific to this population, and current issues and trends. Psychosocial adjustment to visual impairment varies among school-aged children and is influenced by numerous factors such as age of onset and individual characteristics and external dynamics, including family supports and social networks. The educational needs of students who are blind or visually impaired, with or without additional disabilities extend beyond the core curriculum most commonly addressed within the school system. Educational programming for students with congenital visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, begins with early intervention. The functional vision assessment (FVA) considers how a student uses his or her vision under non-clinical conditions in both familiar and unfamiliar settings. The FVA process starts with careful review of existing visual impairment related medical reports.