Writing and Students with Language and Learning Disabilities
In this chapter, the authors present a theoretical model of writing developed by Graham that bridges cognitive and social-contextual theories of writing. Graham's model describes three interactive elements that influence the development of writing: the writing community, the individual situated within the writing community, and the writing task. The act of writing is conceived as an inherently social, contextually framed activity by individuals with diverse cognitive resources and motivational dispositions. Using Graham's model to draw conclusions about typical writing development, the authors then identify correlates of atypical development. They identify evidence-based practices for writing assessment and instruction for students with language and learning difficulties that connect the theoretical model with empirical findings. The evidence-based instruction and assessment practices for writing fall into one of ten essential component categories. These component categories provide an organizational framework to aid educators, administrators, and others in their application of the specific practices.