Science and Social Studies
Students with high-incidence disabilities frequently encounter difficulties with content area learning in areas such as science and social studies that are as significant as their challenges with reading and writing. Textbook- or content-based science learning involves high levels of content coverage, with very substantial amounts of vocabulary learning, and factual learning. Strategies to enhance expository text comprehension, such as summarization strategies, have been effectively implemented with students with learning disabilities studying science text. Marino et al., Coyne, and Dunn delivered a science-learning game focused on astronomy with simplified reading levels to students who were poor readers and students with severe reading difficulties. A number of investigations have attempted to enhance the organizational structure of social studies content. Summarization techniques, peer mediation, computer-assisted instruction, graphic organizers, alternative forms of texts and strategy instruction all helped students with disabilities to better comprehend social studies text.