The critical review of writings on communicative testing in Chapter 2 has generated a framework of communicative testing. It follows the synthetic approach postulated by Bachman and Palmer (1996), which distinguishes between the communicative language ability of the language user and the communicative language use or test task in which this ability is utilized. Accordingly, this framework is primarily comprised of two component frameworks: one of communicative language ability, and one of communicative language use task. In Chapter 3 , the listening behavior is examined as a social and cognitive activity, respectively. Theories on communicative event and language comprehension provide models for the description of listening tasks and listening ability.