The introduction discusses the reasons for the Dutch capitalist miracle and its link to the arms sector of the economy. The role of entrepreneurship and a specific (collective) mindset are explored. The recent shift in the historiography of the military history and criticism of older historiography of the early modern Dutch Republic are outlined. The likelihood of a link between war and economic growth is investigated. Capitalism’s cynicism is pondered. The impact of the Dutch military advance at home and elsewhere is assessed. Russia is proposed as a case study of Dutch impact on military development elsewhere.