Society, school, and home
When children start school, they already show great individual differences in numerical competence. As well as domain-general cognitive factors (see Chapter 5) and domain-specific cognitive factors – core capacity or core deficit (see Chapters 3 and 4), there will be environmental factors such as social, economic, and parental education. “All these factors interact and it is difficult to determine their influence separately or together” (Benavides-Varela et al., 2016). These factors may also indirectly affect the quality of the formal educational environment since well-off parents can afford better schools for their children by buying private education or by buying a home in the catchment area of a better state school.