PLANNING AND GOVERNANCE This section is about the relationships between planning and governance. It begins by clarifying the concept of governance and how it differs from the formal structures of government. It then focuses on the challenge of achieving collective action in the realm of public affairs at a time when there is a global trend towards proliferation of actors, institutions and interests in decision-making processes. One such public activity is the management of urban change, in which planning systems, in all countries where such a system exists, make an important contribution. Within this context, planning is seen as a form of urban/place governance and, as such, is embedded in wider power relations.