In an instant many of the old concepts of war were swept away. Henceforth, it would seem, the purpose of an aggressor nation would be to stock atom bombs in quantity and to employ them by surprise against the industrial fabric and population centers of its intended victim. President Harry S. Truman is the only human being in history to order the employment of nuclear weapons against human beings. Truman was President during the most momentous and traumatic period of world history. In the course of world-shaping events, Truman developed the strategic vision, policies, and strategies that influenced American and world affairs for the next four decades. The Cold War and the "Policy of Containment" meant that the armed forces of the United States should remain in a permanent state of military readiness to provide the counter-force required in order to maintain peace and/or fight until the Soviet Union collapsed from its "deficiencies".