It is quite possible that the Communist expected, when they made their attack, a cheap and easy victory, believing that neither the United States nor any other Western power would assume the risk of general war in order to defend that newly independent country. The Korean War was an infantry war that the US Army was unprepared to fight. During the Korean War, a significant, but unnoticed transition in the American way of war took place. In 1951, as the war became a stalemate, the American citizen-soldier Army stopped employing offensive strategy, the Army's traditional campaign-winning doctrines. In 1905, the Japanese defeated the Russians in a short, bloody war, and occupied Korea. In 1910, Korea was annexed and became a province of Japan. Navy and Marine aviators became the heroes of the close air support war. They assisted soldiers and marines in plugging holes in the line and fighting off breakthrough attacks.