Developments after the Founding
Systems of psychology vary with respect to assumptions about issues of nature and nurture, mind and brain, and free will and determinism. Wilhelm Wundt's psychology emphasized controlled introspection, but his research team used additional methodologies in the laboratory. Humanistic psychology criticized these systems as narrow and insisted that joyfulness, peak experiences, and self-actualization are legitimate topics for study in psychology. The technical term employed by Edward Bradford Titchener for his system of psychology was structuralism. The method of psychology, in Titchener's view, is really no different from the method employed by any other science. In the words of R. B. Evans, Titchener's "lasting contribution to American psychological thought was his championing of psychology as science and of the laboratory as the primary source of data for psychological research". L. Postman outlined several guiding principles in the writings of Ebbinghaus that foreshadowed later developments in psychology. A rapid growth of interest followed the formal founding of psychology at Leipzig.