In 1909, S. Freud accepted G. Stanley Hall's invitation to speak at Clark University. P. Gay observed that prior to his American lectures, psychoanalysts "represented a small, embattled minority in the psychiatric profession; Freud's ideas remained the property of the few, and a scandal to most". Freud described Hippolyte Bernheim's work with hypnosis as astonishing, and it had a clear influence on the development of psychoanalysis. Freud acknowledged many drives but noted that psychoanalysis, especially in its earliest development, focused largely on complications associated with drives toward pleasure. Freud proclaimed that "the theory of repression is the cornerstone on which the whole structure of psychoanalysis rests. Patients in psychoanalytic therapy were encouraged to assume a comfortable position, often on a couch, and discuss their dreams and/or to free associate. In successful psychoanalytic therapy, the individual is freed not only from the authority of the parents but also from the authority of the analyst.