It is imperative to gain an in-depth understanding of the historical educational progress made in postsecondary education level by the Latino student population, which continues to grow at a faster pace than any other major ethnic/racial group in the United States. It is also critical to carefully examine the challenging achievement gaps and the unintended consequences of existing education policies and practices, which may pose a threat to achieving educational equity and equality, which have been crucial American endeavors for decades. This chapter explains the institutional diversity of US colleges and universities, which operate within multiple sectors and types, including two-year and four-year, public and private. It pays special attention to the linguistically and ethnically diverse state of California representing around 1 in 4 Latinos in the United States. The chapter examines and reviews the evidence available from multiple sources, studies and evaluations in order to gain a better understanding of the programs' contributions to Latino student success.