Special education and effective provision
Modern-day special education is a wide and vibrant field of study and practice. Among a range of important contemporary issues identified by Kauffman, Nelson, Simpson and Mock is 'decision-making frameworks' which concerns effective provision for students with disabilities and disorders (special students). A key aim of special education, like that of education generally, is to improve students' attainment and progress in learning, and to enhance development. Attainment is the level of a student's knowledge, understanding and skill compared with peers, for example in speaking and listening, literacy and numeracy while progress refers to the rate at which the student learns and acquires skills. Learning is indicated by what a student knows, understands and can do. Development concerns psychosocial, physical and other aspects of child development. Relationships between special education and full inclusion have been much debated. In education, full inclusion implies that special students are educated with students who do not have disorders and disabilities in mainstream schools and classrooms.