Depressive disorders and anxiety disorders
Depressive disorders include 'major depressive disorder' and 'persistent depressive disorder'. Among types of anxiety disorder are 'generalised anxiety disorder', 'separation anxiety disorder', 'social anxiety disorder', 'specific phobias' and 'obsessive-compulsive disorder'. In major depressive disorder, five or more of a list of symptoms must have been present during the same five-week period and constitute a change from previous functioning. Two of the symptoms have to be depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Other possible symptoms include fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day and insomnia or hypersomnia. In children, depression is comparatively rare, tending to be expressed through anxiety, frustration or somatic complaints. Adolescents tend to show more biological complaints and thoughts of suicide or actual suicidal behaviour. This chapter describes some cognitive behavioural approaches, such as the Adolescent Coping with Depression Course and the Pittsburgh Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program (P-CBT).