Pyeongan province 1
This chapter examines how the strength of merchant communities and the rapid adoption of Christianity and modern education combined to begin transforming this marginalized region into a civil society. It discusses the emergence of the term "society" in discourse and of new forms of political action. Because of how few primary sources exist, not much research has been done on the province in the early modern period. New forms of politics became widespread earlier in Pyeongan, as it underwent social transformation faster than other regions of the country. The growth of commerce stimulated the beginning of handicraft industries in Pyeongan province in the eighteenth century. As in other countries, they produced goods using resources that were nearby and plentiful. Modernizing communities in the area, whose economic livelihood was threatened by Japanese imperialism, served as one of the early social bases of a new nationalism.