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The translation of Chinese historical and other works into Manchu had begun under Nurhaci, but after 1644 the number of translations, now including the Ruist classics, rapidly increased (Durrant 1979:654, 656). By the end of the eighteenth century all the major Chinese classics had been rendered into Manchu (Zacharoff 1891:153; entry 27). Whereas the early translations appeared mostly in monolingual editions, later versions, often intended for use as commentaries on the Chinese originals and as aids to studying Chinese, were routinely published in bilingual form (Grimm 1988:78).