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Biographies of Persons Mentioned in the Text

Adā’ al-Dī 阿答兀丁 (dates unknown), was an official and scholar of Muslim Astronomy in the Ming Dynasty. Little is known about his life.

Aisin Gioro, Yinlu 愛新覺羅胤祿 (1695-1767), also known as Prince Zhuang 莊親王, was the sixteenth son of the Kangxi Emperor. He was one of the leading princes who supervised the compilation of Origins of Mathematical Harmonics and Calendrical Astronomy, Compiled by Imperial Decree 御製律曆淵源 (Yuzhi lüli yuanyuan). He was also one of the four regents in the years following the Qianlong Emperor’s ascension to the thone upon the death of the Yongzheng Emperor.