chapter  25
4 Pages

March 1568

A.D. 1568, 25th March. Charter granted by Tsar Ivan Vasil'yevich to Yakov Stroganov onfinancial,juridical and trade privileges with regard to the salt-works on the river Chusovaya.

I, Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil'yevich of All Russia have granted to Yakov, son of Anika, Stroganov what he has humbly requested saying that in our possessions in those parts for which we have granted them exemption from taxes and a charter to his brother Grigorey, from the stream Lysva to the river Chyusovaya, on both banks of the river Kama, lie empty lands, dense forests, wild streams and lakes, and the extent of this empty land along the Kama is 100 by 40 by 6 versts. 1 Up the river Chyusovaya in the wilderness they have found salt-pans but dare not set up forts at those salt-pans without our knowledge. And on the other side of the river Chyusovaya, from its mouth to its headwaters, and from the river Chyusovaya down the river Kama till the Lasvinskiy pine

wood, on both banks of the river Kama lie empty islands and watermeadows, dense forests and wild streams and lakes extending over 20 versts, which have not been given to them, and in our charter these empty spaces have not been entered. No fields have been ploughed there, no dwellings built, and no taxes whatsoever have been paid to our royal and great princely treasury; nor has this land been given to anyone, or entered in anyone's name in registers, deeds of purchase or legal documents, and the people of Perm' have no settlers there entered in registers and rolls. Yakov wishes to fortify that place by the salt-pans, build a stronghold and set up salt works, and recruit unregistered and untaxed men, and mount quick-firing defence cannon and hand and heavy muskets, and establish gunners, musketeers, smiths, carpenters and artillery-men, and keep guards against the coming ofNagay men and other hordes. And could we grant to Yakov, son of Anika, Stroganov the following: that on that empty land at the salt works by the river Chyusovaya which has been given to them free from taxes, from the river Lysva down the river Kama to the river Chyusovaya, and up the river Chyusovaya from its mouth and on the other side of the river Chyusovaya from its mouth to its headwaters, and from the Chyusovaya river down the Kama river to the Lasvinskiy pine wood, on both banks of the Kama river, he should build forts, and a stronghold, and set up salt works, and recruit unregistered and untaxed men, mount quick-firing defence, cannon and hand and heavy muskets, and establish gunners and musketeers, and smiths, and carpenters, and artillery-men, and keep watchmen against the coming ofNagay men and other hordes. And near that place he is to clear the forest along the streams up to their headwaters and around the lakes, and plough fields, and cut hay in the cleared spaces, and hold hunting, fishing and other profitable grounds. So let it be as Yakov, son of Anika, Stroganov has humbly requested, and I, Tsar and Great Prince Ivan Vasil'yevich of All Russia, have granted to Yakov, son of Anika, Stroganov his humble request and ordered him, in that wilderness along the Chyusovaya river and the same places which have been registered in his name in our former charter, at the salt works where they have found salt pans, to build forts and a stronghold, and mount quick-firing defence, cannon and hand and heavy muskets, and establish gunners, musketeers, smiths, carpenters and artillery-men, and keep watchmen for defence against the Nagay men and other hordes, and near the stronghold, by the salt-pans to set up salt-works and build houses on either side of the Chyusovaya river along the streams and lakes up to their headwaters, and from the Chyusovaya river along both banks of the Kama river 20 versts downstream to the Lasvinskiy pine wood, and fell the forest along the streams and lakes, and plough fields, and clear land for hayfields, and hold hunting and fishing and other profitable grounds, and recruit unregistered and untaxed men, so that our treasury suffers no loss. And Yakov is not to recruit registered and tax-paying men from Perm' and various towns of our realm and not to admit them,

nortoacceptrunawayboyars'menwiththeirfamilies,orthievesand robbers.AndiftherecometoYakovfromothertownsordistrictsofour realmtax-payingmenwiththeirwivesandchildren,andifourgovernorsordistrictbailiffsandelectedheadmenenquireaboutthemYakov istosendbackthosetax-payerswiththeirwivesandchildrentothe townsfromwhichenquirieshavebeenmadeaboutthem,andheisnot tokeeporadmitthesepeople.Butwhatevermencometothattownfrom ourrealmorfromotherlands,withmoneyormerchandisetobuysaltor fishorotherwares,thesemenaretoselltheirgoodsfreely,andpurchasesaretobemadefromthemwithoutanypaymentofdues.Andif anypeoplecomefromPerm'tolivethere,Yakovistoadmitthembut exclusivelytheunregisteredanduntaxed.Andwhereinthosepartssaltpansarefound,thereheistosetupsalt-worksandextractsalt.Andon fishinginthestreamsandlakesatthoseplacestherewillbenolevy.And wheresilverorcopperortinoreisfoundYakovistoinformusimmediatelyaboutthoseoresandnotworkthoseoreshimselfwithout ourknowledge.AndYakovisnottoenterPerm'fishingandhunting groundswhichhavebeenrecordedbythePermiansinregistersand legaldocuments.Ihavegrantedhimexemptionfromtaxesforthose newlandsaboutwhichYakovhashumblybeseechedme,ontheother sideoftheChyusovayariver,andfromtheChyusovayariver20versts downstreamtheriverKamaonbothitsbanksuptotheLasvinskiy pinewood,forroyears,thesameprivilegeasIhavepreviously grantedonthehumblerequestofGrigoreyfromAnnunciationDay oftheyear7066[1558]tillAnnunciationDayoftheyear7086[1578]. Andforthosemen,unregisteredanduntaxed,whocometohim intothestronghold,itssuburbs,andtheploughlandsaroundthe town,andtothevillagesandonthenewlyclearedland,forthese duringthoseprivilegedtenyearsYakovneednotpaymyroyaland greatprincelytribute,andrelaylevies,saltpetremoney,ploughingand defenceservice,andleviesonsaltandonthefisheriesinthoseparts. Andwhateverpeopletravelpastthattownshipfromourrealmorother countrieswithgoodsorwithoutthem,theyshallnotbemadetopay anydueswhatsoever,whethertheytradeornot.Butifhetakesorsends thissaltandfishtoothertownsheistopayallthetaxesonthissaltand fish,thesameasthoseexactedfromothermerchants.Andwhatever men,whetherploughmenornot,whocometosettleinthatstronghold ofhis,ourgovernorsofPerm'andtheirbailiffsshallhavenojurisdiction whateveroverYakovStroganovandmenofhisstrongholdandvillages, andtheirsheriffsandconstablesandtheirmenarenottocometo YakovStroganov,tohisstrongholdandvillagesonanyaccount,norto holdthemtobailorsendanyoneouttothem,butYakovwillbein chargeofhislocalinhabitantsandistojudgetheminallcaseshimselfor throughwhomeverhewillordertodoso.Andwhoeverfromother townswillhaveanylitigationwithYakovshalltakeoutthelegaldocumentshere,andaccordingtotheselegaldocumentsbothplaintiffand

defendantwillappearinpersonbeforeusinMoscowduringthatsame periodoftimetillAnnunciationDay.Whenthesedeterminedyearshave cometoanendYakovStroganovistobringtoMoscowallthetaxes toourtreasuryonthesamedateofAnnunciationDaytotheamount whichourscribeswillhaveset.ThistooIhavegrantedYakov,sonof Anika,Stroganov:whenheorhismenorpeasantsfromhissettlement travelfromtheirsettlementfromtheVychegdasalts1pastPerm'onto theKamatotheirsettlement,orfromtheirsettlementtotheVychegda salts,ourgovernorsandtheirbailiffsandconstablesandallofficialsof Perm'shallnotputYakovorhismenandpeasantsonbail,norbring themtocourtonanymatter.ThistooIhavegrantedtoYakov,sonof Anika,Stroganov:whenourenvoystravelfromMoscowtoSibir'or fromSibir'toMoscow,orwhenourenvoystravelfromKazan'to Perm',orfromPerm'toKazan'pasthisstronghold,Yakovandhislocal peopleduringhisprivilegedtenyearswillnothavetogivecartsor guidesorfoddertoourSiberianenvoysandanyofourothermessengers; butthemerchantsofthetownaretokeepbreadandsaltandallother storesandsellthemtoenvoys,andmessengers,andwayfarers,and travellersatthesamepriceastheytradeamongthemselves;andevery travellermayhirecarts,andboats,andoarsmen,andhelmsmenfor theirneedfromwhomeverwillwishtohirehimselfoutcheapest.This tooIhavegrantedYakov,sonofAnika,Stroganov:nottoexactany taxesfromthemenofPerm',andnottohaveanyaccountswiththem duringthosedeterminedyears.AndthemenofPerm'arenottoenter Yakov'spropertyoflandorforestfromtheriverChyusovayaalongboth banksoftheKamatotheLasvinskiypinewood,alongthestreamsand lakesuptotheirheadwaters,intononeofthenewgainfulappendagesto hispropertywhichhavenotbeenenteredintheregistersandlegaldeeds ofthemenofPerm',butletthemenofPerm'holdtheoldhunting groundswhichtheyhaveheldofoldaccordingtotheregisters,andlet Yakovholdhisnewhuntinggroundsforwhichhuntinggroundsand othergainfulpropertynodueshavebeencomingtoourtreasuryandno furtributehasbeenpaidtoKazan'toourboyarsandgovernorsforour treasury.ButifitappearsthatYakovhasbeenfalseinhishumble requesttous,orifhebeginstoactoutofkeepingwiththischarteror takestothieving,thenthismycharterwillbenullandvoid.This charterwasgrantedinMoscowintheyear7076[1568],onthe25thday ofMarch.