Activity Theory is a general conceptual framework; it is not a highly predicative theory. It is a psychological approach based on cultural-historical psychology and was a dominant theory under communism in the Soviet Union. It seems fitting that the author spoke about application of Activity Theory in the development of twenty-first century digital archives in the place of its birth at a conference in Moscow earlier this year. The use of tools within the digital archival domain can be seen as an accumulation and transmission of archival knowledge. In this research, technology is regarded as tool that mediates interaction between the user and the digital object. Emphasis is placed on contextual factors which exist in the domain and on the interaction between users and digital object via their system environment. Because tool mediation is such an important aspect of Activity Theory it also takes into account long-term developmental changes in users, technology, their interaction and overall context of the domain.