New Textual Expressions and Patterns of Narration
With digitisation, the relationship between fields of production and fields of consumption changes, as digitisation makes some of these processes accessible in fields of production. Firstly, in digital environments the media user acts in the field of consumption, producing difference as well as aesthetic and social value through subjective and, most importantly, social labour. The activity that produces difference, aesthetic and social value is then appropriated by the media and culture industries as labour in order to produce exchange value. Secondly, the textual work of active audiences and fans that results in user-generated content (to use the Web 2.0 discourse) is also appropriated by the industry. Hence, as Peter Jakobsson and Fredrik Stiernstedt (2010) have shown, this produces the ambivalent attitude on the part of the industry, which on on the one hand deplores the difficulties involved in protecting one’s own commodities (media content in the form of music, films, computer games) and on the other hand denies the rights of the ‘user-generators’ who actually fill Facebook, MySpace and other networking sites with content the return on their investment: the wages for their labour.