Just as colonialism is not a monolithic process, neither does it simply ‘get done’ to passive native peoples. Indigenous resistance, in multiple and changing forms, physically and performatively shaped, and continues to shape, the production of colonial space in settler states. This chapter sets out some key ideas to shape our understanding of the importance of land justice for Indigenous peoples to the planning field. What kind of challenges do Indigenous people make to planning, and how should we conceptualize those challenges in their historical context? What is the nexus between Indigenous rights in land and the practice of state-based planning? This chapter is about the challenge that the difference of Indigeneity makes to planning. Important to this understanding is to appreciate the link between Indigenous claims over, and struggles for, land; questions of sovereignty and citizenship, and the contemporary recognition, in its varied forms, of Indigenous rights in settler states. Underpinning all these is the fact of dispossession of Indigenous peoples, and the effects of its discourses. First, though, some context on the scale and nature of Indigenous resistance and struggle is necessary.