chapter  6
Modes of Governance: The Difference Indigeneity Makes to Progressive Planning
Pages 26

New approaches to the inclusion of Indigenous peoples in land planning and management are proliferating all over settler states. In the environmental planning field, the model of joint management (sometimes called co-management) of protected areas has been widely adopted, albeit in slightly different forms. Examples include Uluru-Kata Tjuta in Australia, Kluane National Park Reserve in Canada, and Te Waihora Lake and surrounds in Aoteoroa-New Zealand to name just a few. The different models are diverse, but the underlying principle is that Indigenous people co-manage an area of land in partnership with government through different forms of agreement and representation on boards of management. There is an apparent evidence base here, then, of a shift in approaches to planning and land management, and it is quite widely seen as a shift to more collaborative forms of planning, influenced by theories of deliberative democracy and communicative ethics. ‘Community-based’ planning in these kinds of settings is widely pronounced, in practice as well as in their analysis, as more inclusive and able to accommodate Indigenous perspectives in new and innovative ways: an advance on top-down, technocratic decision-making in planning.