chapter  1
28 Pages

United Nations Engagement with Indigenous Issues

Indigenous peoples’ interests are progressed in part through general, undifferentiated human rights instruments in the human rights canon, which, as $UWLFOH RI WKH81'5,3 DI¿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¿FDOO\GHGLFDWHGWRWKHSURPRWLRQDQGSURWHFWLRQ RILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶ULJKWVZKLFKKDYHFRPHLQWREHLQJLQWKHODVWWKLUW\\HDUV RUVRSULQFLSDOO\DVDUHVXOWRIWKHDFWLYLWLHVRIWKHJOREDOLQGLJHQRXVPRYHPHQW ZLWKLQWKH81V\VWHP7KLVFKDSWHUSURYLGHVDQRYHUYLHZRIWKHVHGHYHORSPHQWV beginning with the core human rights instruments concerning indigenous peoples EHIRUHSURJUHVVLQJWRIXUWKHUVXSSRUWLQJLQLWLDWLYHV

Core Indigenous Rights Instruments

Developments within the ILO: Conventions No. 107 and No. 169

7KHLVVXHRILQGLJHQRXVULJKWV¿UVWDURVHLQWKH81LQWKHFRQWH[WRIWKH,QWHUQDWLRQDO /DERXU2UJDQL]DWLRQ,/2±D81VSHFLDOL]HGDJHQF\WKDWSUHGDWHVWKH81±DQG LWVFRQFHUQZLWKWKHH[SORLWDWLRQRILQGLJHQRXVODERXU$QLQWHUHVWRIWKH,/2GDWLQJ EDFNWRWKHVGXULQJWKHVWKH,/2SURGXFHGDQXPEHURILQVWUXPHQWV SURWHFWLQJ LQGLJHQRXV ZRUNHUV EHIRUH DGRSWLQJ LQ WKH ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ 1R&RQFHUQLQJWKH3URWHFWLRQDQG,QWHJUDWLRQRI,QGLJHQRXVDQG2WKHU7ULEDO DQG6HPL7ULEDO3RSXODWLRQVLQ,QGHSHQGHQW&RXQWULHV,/2&RQYHQWLRQ1R DQG LWVDFFRPSDQ\LQJ ,QGLJHQRXVDQG7ULEDO3RSXODWLRQV5HFRPPHQGDWLRQ1R 17KH¿UVWFRPSUHKHQVLYHVHWRILQWHUQDWLRQDOVWDQGDUGVRQLQGLJHQRXVULJKWV

,/2&RQYHQWLRQ1R DWWHPSWV WR DGGUHVV WKHPDUJLQDOL]DWLRQ RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVWKURXJKDUDQJHRIVSHFLDOSURWHFWLYHPHDVXUHVEXWRYHUZKHOPLQJO\UHÀHFWV WKHGRPLQDQWµLQGLJHQLVW¶*UD\DSSURDFKRIWKHWLPHLQSURPRWLQJWKH HYHQWXDOLQWHJUDWLRQRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVLQWRQDWLRQDOVRFLHWLHVDQGHFRQRPLHV $UWLFOHVHWVIRUWKWKHPDLQWKUXVWRIWKH&RQYHQWLRQDVIROORZV

7KHSURWHFWLRQVUHFRJQL]HGLQ,/2&RQYHQWLRQ1RDUHYDULHGDQGLQFOXGHWKH ULJKW WRERWK LQGLYLGXDO DQG FROOHFWLYHRZQHUVKLSRI WUDGLWLRQDO ODQGV $UW SUHVHUYDWLRQRIODQJXDJH$UWDQGVRPHGHJUHHRISURWHFWLRQIRULQGLJHQRXV FXVWRPVDQGLQVWLWXWLRQVEXWVSHFLDOPHDVXUHVDUHYLHZHGDVWHPSRUDU\DQGµQRW WREHXVHGDVDPHDQVRIFUHDWLQJRUSURORQJLQJDVWDWHRIVHJUHJDWLRQ¶,/2 $UW7KHEDODQFHEHWZHHQSURWHFWLRQDQGLQWHJUDWLRQLVWKHUHIRUHYHU\PXFK ELDVHG WRZDUGV WKH ODWWHUDQG LQZD\ WKDW LVZKROO\DWRGGVZLWKFRQWHPSRUDU\ QRUPVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶ULJKWV

,/2&RQYHQWLRQ1RLVQRORQJHURSHQIRUUDWL¿FDWLRQWKRXJKLWUHPDLQV LQ IRUFH IRU HLJKWHHQ FRXQWULHV 7KH ,/2 KDV KRZHYHU ORQJ UHFRJQL]HG WKH IXQGDPHQWDO OLPLWDWLRQV RI WKH &RQYHQWLRQ IRU RYHU D GHFDGH WKH &RPPLWWHH RI([SHUWVRQWKH$SSOLFDWLRQRI&RQYHQWLRQVDQG5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV&($&5

UHVSRQVLEOH IRU PRQLWRULQJ FRPSOLDQFH KDV LQWHUSUHWHG JRYHUQPHQW REOLJDWLRQV XQGHUWKH&RQYHQWLRQLQDZD\WKDWGLVSHQVHVZLWKLWVLQWHJUDWLRQLVWDQGSDWHUQDOLVWLF HOHPHQWVLQIDYRXURIPRUHFXUUHQWGHYHORSPHQWVDQGHVSHFLDOO\LQDFFRUGDQFH with the ILO &RQYHQWLRQ1R&RQFHUQLQJ,QGLJHQRXVDQG7ULEDO3HRSOHV LQ ,QGHSHQGHQW&RXQWULHV,/2&RQYHQWLRQ1RRI$FFRUGLQJO\WKHOLYH VWDWXVRIWKH&RQYHQWLRQLQWKHDIRUHPHQWLRQHGHLJKWHHQVWDWHVGRHVQRWFUHDWHDQ DQRPDO\LQLQWHUQDWLRQDOODZDQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ

7KH UHYLVLRQ RI ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ 1R DQG LWV UHSODFHPHQW ZLWK ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ1R ZDV EURXJKW DERXW LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI JURZLQJ LQGLJHQRXV PRELOL]DWLRQZLWKLQWKH81V\VWHPDQGUHÀHFWVDUHVSRQVLYHQHVVWRLQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶ GHPDQGV IRU UHFRJQLWLRQ RI WKHLU FROOHFWLYH ULJKWV WR H[LVW DV GLVWLQFW FRPPXQLWLHV DQG SHRSOHV ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ 1R IRUPDOO\ UHMHFWV WKH integrationist and assimilationist intentions of its predecessor, which were GHVFULEHG DW WKH 0HHWLQJRI([SHUWV FRQYHQHG WR GLVFXVV UHYLVLRQRI WKH &RQYHQWLRQ DV µGHVWUXFWLYH LQ WKHPRGHUQZRUOG« LQ SUDFWLFH LW >[email protected] KDG EHFRPH D FRQFHSW ZKLFKPHDQW WKH H[WLQFWLRQ RI ZD\V RI OLIH ZKLFK DUH GLIIHUHQW IURP WKDW RI GRPLQDQW VRFLHW\¶ FLWHG LQ$QD\D ,WV EDVLF RULHQWDWLRQ LV UHÀHFWHG LQ WKH SUHDPEOH ZKLFK UHFRJQL]HV WKH DVSLUDWLRQV RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV µWR H[HUFLVH FRQWURO RYHU WKHLU RZQ LQVWLWXWLRQV ZD\V RI OLIH DQG HFRQRPLF GHYHORSPHQW DQG WR PDLQWDLQ DQG GHYHORS WKHLU LGHQWLWLHV ODQJXDJHVDQGUHOLJLRQVZLWKLQWKHIUDPHZRUNRIWKH6WDWHVLQZKLFKWKH\OLYH¶ ,/2SUHDPEOH,WVSURYLVLRQVHVWDEOLVKDZLGHUDQJHRIULJKWVLQFOXGLQJ LQGLYLGXDO ULJKWVRIQRQGLVFULPLQDWLRQ$UWSHUVRQDOVHFXULW\$UWDQG SROLWLFDODQGFLYLFSDUWLFLSDWLRQLQQDWLRQDOVRFLHW\$UWDQGFROOHFWLYHULJKWV WRFXOWXUDOLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGOLQJXLVWLFLQWHJULW\$UWVDQGDQGRZQHUVKLS DQGSRVVHVVLRQRIODQGVDQGUHVRXUFHV$UWVDQG

8QOLNH ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ 1R ,/2 &RQYHQWLRQ 1R XVHV WKH WHUP µSHRSOHV¶UDWKHUWKDQµSRSXODWLRQV¶WRGHQRWHWKHEHQH¿FLDULHVRIWKH&RQYHQWLRQ 7KLV UHSUHVHQWHG D VLJQL¿FDQW EUHDNWKURXJK LQVRIDU DV WKH IRUPHU LV DVVRFLDWHG

ZLWK WKH ULJKW WR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ LQ LQWHUQDWLRQDO ODZ ,WV LQFOXVLRQKRZHYHU ZDVVWURQJO\UHVLVWHGE\VRPHVWDWHVUHVXOWLQJLQDQHYHQWXDOFRPSURPLVHLQWKH IRUPRIDFODUL¿FDWLRQDVIROORZV$UW

7KHTXDOLI\LQJODQJXDJHRI$UWLFOHGLVDSSRLQWHGLQGLJHQRXVDGYRFDWHVZKR DOVRH[SUHVVHGGLVVDWLVIDFWLRQZLWKWKHODFNRIHIIHFWLYHSDUWLFLSDWLRQRILQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVLQWKH*HQHUDO&RQIHUHQFH2QO\LQWHUQDWLRQDO1*2VZHUHDOORZHG to participate, and these were permitted to address the conference on a limited EDVLVRQO\%HUPDQ1RQHWKHOHVVDV$QD\D±QRWHVHYHQ WKHTXDOL¿HGXVHRIWKHWHUPµSHRSOHV¶UHSUHVHQWHGVLJQL¿FDQWSURJUHVVLQLPSO\LQJ µD JUHDWHU DQG PRUH SRVLWLYH UHFRJQLWLRQ RI JURXS LGHQWLW\ DQG FRUUHVSRQGLQJ DWWULEXWHV RI FRPPXQLW\¶ZKLOH D QXPEHU RI WKH&RQYHQWLRQ¶V SURYLVLRQV JR D VLJQL¿FDQWZD\WRSURWHFWLQJDVSHFWVRIWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRVHOI GHWHUPLQDWLRQ1RULV LW WKHFDVHWKDW WKHTXDOLI\LQJODQJXDJHVKRXOGEHVHHQDV KDYLQJ EHHQ LQWHQGHG WR OLPLW WKHPHDQLQJ RI WKH WHUP DV LV HYLGHQW IURP WKH OHJLVODWLYHKLVWRU\DQGVHYHUDOVWDWHPHQWVVLQFHWKH,/2FRQVLGHUHGWKHLVVXHRI the right to self-determination of indigenous peoples to be a political rather than a ODERXULVVXHDQGWKHUHIRUHEHVWOHIWWRSURFHGXUHVZLWKLQWKH81

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Progression through the UN System

:LWKLQ WKH 81 SURSHU WKH HDUOLHVW VLJQL¿FDQW HQJDJHPHQW ZLWK LQGLJHQRXV LVVXHVGDWHV WRZKHQ WKH81(FRQRPLFDQG6RFLDO&RXQFLO (&262& UHTXHVWHG WKH 81 6XE&RPPLVVLRQ RQ WKH 3UHYHQWLRQ RI 'LVFULPLQDWLRQ DQG 3URWHFWLRQ RI 0LQRULWLHV 6XE&RPPLVVLRQ WR XQGHUWDNH D VWXG\ RQ GLVFULPLQDWLRQ H[SHULHQFHG E\ LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV7KH VWXG\ZDV DOORWWHG WR 6SHFLDO5DSSRUWHXU-RVp50DUWtQH]&RERRI(FXDGRUDQGWRRNWKLUWHHQ\HDUV WRFRPSOHWH5,WZDVLVVXHGLQLQVWDOPHQWVEHWZHHQDQGDQGSXEOLVKHG in consolidated form under the title Study on the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations8QLWHG1DWLRQVD&RQWDLQLQJFKDSWHUV FRYHULQJGLYHUVHDUHDVRIFRQFHUQIRULQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVLQFOXGLQJODQGSROLWLFDO ULJKWVODQJXDJHKHDOWKDQGFXOWXUHWKHVWXG\PDNHVDQXPEHURIFRQFOXVLRQV DQGSURSRVDOV DQG RIIHUV WKH QRWHZRUWK\ YLHZ WKDW µVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ LQ LWV

PDQ\ IRUPVPXVW EH UHFRJQL]HG DV WKHEDVLF SUHFRQGLWLRQ IRU WKH HQMR\PHQW E\ LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV RI WKHLU IXQGDPHQWDO ULJKWV DQG WKH GHWHUPLQDWLRQ RI WKHLU RZQ IXWXUH¶ 8QLWHG1DWLRQV SDUD $PDMRU FRQVLGHUDWLRQ LQ WKHSURFHVVRISUHSDULQJWKHUHSRUWZDVWKDWLWWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHYLHZVDQG DVSLUDWLRQVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVZKLFKE\WKHODWHVZHUHLQFUHDVLQJO\ EHLQJYRLFHGLQLQWHUQDWLRQDOIRUD

,QXUJHGRQE\WKH¿QGLQJVRIWKH&RERUHSRUWDVZHOODVWKHJURZLQJ DGYRFDF\ RI LQGLJHQRXV DQG QRQLQGLJHQRXV 1*2V (&262& DXWKRUL]HG WKH HVWDEOLVKPHQWRIWKH81:RUNLQJ*URXSRQ,QGLJHQRXV3RSXODWLRQV:*,3DV DVXERUJDQRIWKH6XE&RPPLVVLRQ&RPSULVHGRI¿YHURWDWLQJPHPEHUVRIWKH 6XE&RPPLVVLRQZKR DUH LQGLYLGXDOVZRUNLQJ LQ WKH FDSDFLW\ RI LQGHSHQGHQW KXPDQ ULJKWV H[SHUWV UDWKHU WKDQ VWDWH UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV WKH:*,3ZDV FKDUJHG ZLWKDWZRIROGPDQGDWHLWRUHYLHZGHYHORSPHQWVFRQFHUQLQJWKHSURPRWLRQDQG protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous peoples; DQG LL WR IRUPXODWH VWDQGDUGV WKDW FRXOG JXLGH UHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVDQGVWDWHV,QWKHODWWHUWDVNZDVJLYHQJUHDWHUIRFXVZLWKWKH6XE &RPPLVVLRQ¶VDSSURYDORIWKH:*,3¶VGHFLVLRQWRGUDIWD81GHFODUDWLRQRQWKH ULJKWVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV

7KH:*,3¶VRULJLQDOLQWHQWLRQZDVWRFRPSOHWHZRUNRQDGUDIWGHFODUDWLRQ ZLWKLQ D IHZ\HDUV DOORZLQJ HQRXJK WLPH IRU D GHFODUDWLRQ WR SURJUHVV WR WKH *HQHUDO$VVHPEO\IRUDGRSWLRQLQ,QWKHHYHQWWKH:*,3GLGQRWDJUHHRQ D¿QDOWH[WXQWLO&ULWLFDOWRWKHRYHUDOOWDVNZDVWKHHVWHHPHG&KDLUSHUVRQ 5DSSRUWHXURIWKH:*,3IURPWR(ULFD,UHQH$'DHVZKRVWHHUHG WKHZRUNLQJJURXSWKURXJKWKHGUDIWLQJSURFHVV$OVRUHJDUGHGDVWKHSULQFLSDO GUDIWHU'DHVSURGXFHGD¿UVWVHWRISUHDPEXODUSDUDJUDSKVDQGSULQFLSOHVLQ 8QLWHG1DWLRQV'LVFXVVLRQRIWKLVDQGVXEVHTXHQWGUDIWVFRQWLQXHGXQWLO WKH¿QDOUHYLVLRQLQ)ROORZLQJWHFKQLFDOUHYLHZE\WKH6HFUHWDULDWWKH¿QDO GUDIWZDVDGRSWHGZLWKRXWFKDQJHVE\WKH6XE&RPPLVVLRQDWLWVWKVHVVLRQLQ 8

During the process of composing the Draft United Nations Declaration, the :*,3DFFHSWHG LQWHUYHQWLRQV IURPVWDWHV LQWHUJRYHUQPHQWDORUJDQL]DWLRQV81 specialized agencies, and organizations of indigenous peoples, with the latter

KDYLQJHTXDOULJKWVWRH[SUHVVWKHLUYLHZVRQWKHFRQWHQWRIWKHWH[W$VVXFKWKH GUDIW WKDWHPHUJHGVXEVWDQWLDOO\ UHÀHFWHG WKHDVSLUDWLRQVRI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV HVSHFLDOO\ DV RYHU WLPH VWDWHV JUDGXDOO\ ZLWKGUHZ IURP WKH GUDIWLQJ SURFHVV DWWHQGLQJ LQ VPDOOHU QXPEHUV DV WKH GUDIW GHYHORSHG %DUVK 2I SDUWLFXODUQRWHLVWKHULJKWRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQZKLFKZDVHYHQWXDOO\LQFOXGHGLQ WKH¿QDOGUDIWWH[WLQWKHIROORZLQJIRUPDW$UW

This language reproduces the classic language of Common Article 1 of the ,QWHUQDWLRQDO+XPDQ5LJKWV&RYHQDQWVRIRQWKHULJKWWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ DQGZDVPHWZLWKDVWDQGLQJRYDWLRQIURPLQGLJHQRXVSDUWLFLSDQWV'DHV %HVLGHVWKHULJKWWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQWKH'UDIW8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HFODUDWLRQ UHFRJQL]HGDPRQJVWLWVDUWLFOHVDUDQJHRIFROOHFWLYHULJKWVLQFOXGLQJSURWHFWLRQ IURPJHQRFLGHDQGHWKQRFLGH$UWVDQGWKHULJKWWRSUDFWLFHDQGSHUSHWXDWH WKHLUFXOWXUH$UWVDQGWKHULJKWWRFRPSUHKHQVLYHFRQWURORYHUODQGV WHUULWRULHVDQGUHVRXUFHV$UWVDQGLQWHOOHFWXDOSURSHUW\ULJKWV $UWDQGWKHUHFRJQLWLRQRIGLVWLQFWLQGLJHQRXVSROLWLFDODQGOHJDOV\VWHPV $UWVDQG

7KHWH[WRIWKH'UDIW8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HFODUDWLRQSURGXFHGE\WKH:*,3KDV EHHQGHVFULEHGDVUDGLFDOE\DQXPEHURIFRPPHQWDWRUV7KRUQEHUU\ IRUH[DPSOHKDVVWDWHGWKDWµLQWKHVSHFWUXPIURPUHIRUPWRUHYROXWLRQ>WKH'UDIW '[email protected]\HQGDPRQJWKHSDVVLRQDWH FRORXUV¶;DQWKDNLVLPLODUO\GHVFULEHVLWDVµDQDPELWLRXVWH[WWKDW FKDOOHQJHVVWDWHVRYHUHLJQW\DWDGHHSOHYHO¶1RQHWKHOHVVDWWKHWZHOIWKVHVVLRQRI WKH:*,3LQVRPHLQGLJHQRXVSDUWLFLSDQWVFULWLFL]HGWKHGUDIWIRUQRWJRLQJ IDUHQRXJKZLWKFULWLFLVPIRFXVLQJLQSDUWLFXODURQ$UWLFOHZKLFKVRPHDUJXHG PLJKWEHUHDGDVLPSRVLQJDOLPLWDWLRQRQWKHH[HUFLVHRI$UWLFOH8QLWHG1DWLRQV DSDUD$UWLFOHVWDWHVWKDW

2WKHUV LQFOXGLQJ WKH 1REHO3HDFH3UL]HZLQQHU5LJREHUWD0HQFKX7XP LQWHUSUHWHG$UWLFOHDVLGHQWLI\LQJDXWRQRP\DVMXVWRQHSUHVXPDEO\PLQLPDO IRUP RI H[HUFLVLQJ D ULJKW WR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV D SDUD ZKLOH WKH WH[W LWVHOI VWDWHV LQ$UWLFOH WKDW µWKH ULJKWV UHFRJQL]HG KHUHLQ FRQVWLWXWH WKH PLQLPXP VWDQGDUGV IRU WKH VXUYLYDO GLJQLW\ DQG ZHOOEHLQJ RI

WKH LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV RI WKH ZRUOG¶ )RU WKHLU SDUW IHZ VWDWH UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV IXOO\ HQGRUVHG WKH GUDIW WH[W )ROORZLQJ DGRSWLRQ E\ WKH 6XE&RPPLVVLRQ WKH ODWWHUVXEPLWWHGWKH'UDIW81'HFODUDWLRQWRLWVSDUHQWERG\WKH&RPPLVVLRQRQ +XPDQ5LJKWV&+59&RPSULVHGRI WKHUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVRIVWDWHV WKH&+5 ZDVXQDEOHWRDFFHSWWKHWH[WDVUHFHLYHGDQGHVWDEOLVKHGE\5HVROXWLRQ RI0DUFKµDQRSHQHQGHGZRUNLQJJURXSRIWKH&RPPLVVLRQRQ+XPDQ Rights with the sole purpose of elaborating a draft declaration, considering the GUDIWFRQWDLQHGLQWKHDQQH[WR5HVROXWLRQRI$XJXVW¶8QLWHG 1DWLRQVD7KHPDLQFRQFHUQVRIVWDWHUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVUHYROYHGDURXQGLVVXHV RIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQZKLFKPDQ\VWDWHVUHJDUGHGDVSRVLQJVHULRXVWKUHDWVWRWKHLU WHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\ODQGDQGUHVRXUFHULJKWVDQGFROOHFWLYHULJKWVPRUHJHQHUDOO\

$QLQLWLDOFRQFHUQUDLVHGE\WKHFUHDWLRQRIWKH:RUNLQJ*URXSRIWKH'UDIW 'HFODUDWLRQ:*''ZDVWKDWWKHVWULFWHUUXOHVRIDFFUHGLWDWLRQDQGSDUWLFLSDWLRQ DSSOLHG E\ WKH &+5 ZRXOG OLPLW WKH H[WHQW RI SDUWLFLSDWLRQ RI LQGLJHQRXV UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV DQG WKDW WKH GUDIW WH[W ZRXOG WKHUHIRUH EHFRPH VXEVWDQWLDOO\ GLOXWHG$IWHUPXFK OREE\LQJRQ WKHSDUWRI LQGLJHQRXVGHOHJDWHVKRZHYHU WKH Commission established a procedure to allow indigenous organizations lacking FRQVXOWDWLYH VWDWXV ZLWK (&262& WR DWWHQG VHVVLRQV RI WKH :*'' 8QLWHG 1DWLRQVD$QQH[7KRXJKQRWPHHWLQJWKHGHJUHHRIRSHQQHVVFKDUDFWHUL]HG E\ WKH :*,3 WKH SURFHGXUH HQDEOHG RYHU LQGLJHQRXV RUJDQL]DWLRQV WR SDUWLFLSDWHZKLOHRYHUWLPHLQGLJHQRXVGHOHJDWHVZHUHDOVRDEOHWRVLJQL¿FDQWO\ LQÀXHQFH WKHPRGDOLWLHV RI WKHLU SDUWLFLSDWLRQ DQG WKHZRUNLQJPHWKRGV7KHVH µSURFHGXUDOFODLPVRIWKHUHVLVWDQFH¶7HQQDQWZLOOEHGLVFXVVHGLQ&KDSWHU +HUHVXI¿FHWRVD\WKDWVWUXJJOHVWRVHFXUHSDUWLFLSDWLRQKDYHEHHQFULWLFDOWR WKHDFKLHYHPHQWRIVXEVWDQWLYHJRDOVZKLOVWDOVREHLQJHPEOHPDWLFRIWKHZLGHU VWUXJJOHIRUVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ

0HHWLQJ DQQXDOO\ IURP WR WKH HOHYHQ \HDUV RI GHOLEHUDWLRQV LQ WKH:*''PDQDJHG WR UHGXFH VRPH LPSRUWDQW IHDUV RI VWDWHV HVSHFLDOO\ UHODWLQJ WR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ FRQWURO RYHU QDWXUDO UHVRXUFHV DQG FROOHFWLYH ULJKWVPRUH JHQHUDOO\<HW DW WKH¿UVW UHDGLQJ RI WKH GUDIW WH[W DW WKH RSHQLQJ VHVVLRQLQRQO\WZRDUWLFOHVPHWZLWKQRREMHFWLRQVIURPVWDWHVZKLOH DUWLFOHVZHUHHQWLUHO\REMHFWLRQDEOHWRDWOHDVWRQHJRYHUQPHQW8QLWHG1DWLRQV DVHHDOVR%DUVK±$VDQWLFLSDWHGLQGLJHQRXV1*2VDQG VWDWHV ZHUH SDUWLFXODUO\ SRODUL]HG RYHU WKH ULJKW WR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ ZKLFK LPPHGLDWHO\ DURVH DV D GLI¿FXOW LVVXH ZLWK %UD]LO¶V REMHFWLRQ WR WKH XVH RI the term ‘peoples’ in the title of the drafting group as it appeared on the draft DJHQGD µZRUNLQJ JURXS RQ D GUDIW8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HFODUDWLRQ RQ WKH5LJKWV RI ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHV¶ %DUVK$ WHUP WKDWFDUULHV LPSOLFDWLRQV LQ

LQWHUQDWLRQDOODZWRDYRLGDVWDOHPDWHDOOGRFXPHQWVZHUHUHYLVHGWRµZRUNLQJ JURXSHVWDEOLVKHGLQDFFRUGDQFHZLWK&RPPLVVLRQRQ+XPDQ5LJKWV5HVROXWLRQ ¶ 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV D SDUD 'XULQJ GLVFXVVLRQV RQ$UWLFOH RQO\$XVWUDOLD%ROLYLD&XED'HQPDUN)LML)LQODQGDQG1RUZD\VXSSRUWHG LWVZRUGLQJ2I WKH UHPDLQLQJ VWDWHV ¿YH FRXQWULHV LQFOXGLQJ ,UDT 3HUX WKH 3KLOLSSLQHVWKH8QLWHG6WDWHVDQGWKH8NUDLQHWRRNWKHYLHZWKDWWKHODQJXDJH RI VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ ZRXOG QHHG WR EH VXEVWDQWLDOO\ TXDOL¿HG WR SURWHFW WKH WHUULWRULDO LQWHJULW\ RI VWDWHV EHIRUH EHLQJ DFFHSWDEOHZKLOH D UHPDLQLQJ QLQH VWDWHV FRPSULVLQJ RI $UJHQWLQD %UD]LO &KLOH &RORPELD (FXDGRU -DSDQ 0H[LFR0RURFFRDQG5XVVLDYRLFHGIXQGDPHQWDOREMHFWLRQV WKDWZHQW WR WKH XQGHUO\LQJSULQFLSOH8QLWHG1DWLRQVDSDUD%DUVK2IWKH JURXSUHTXLULQJDPHQGPHQWVWRWKHHIIHFWWKDWWKHWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\RIVWDWHV ZRXOGQRWEHDIIHFWHGWKH3KLOLSSLQHVSURSRVHGWKDWWKHWH[WH[SOLFLWO\VWDWHWKDW VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQEHH[HUFLVHGµZLWKLQWKHIUDPHZRUNRIQDWLRQDOXQLW\¶ZKLOH WKH8QLWHG6WDWHVDUJXHGWKDWWKHODQJXDJHRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQFRXOGRQO\EH VXSSRUWHG LI OLPLWHG WR LQWHUQDO VHOIJRYHUQPHQW 8QLWHG1DWLRQV D SDUD %DUVK2IWKHODWWHUJURXS$UJHQWLQDVXJJHVWHGGHOHWLQJDOOUHIHUHQFHV WR µSHRSOHV¶ DQG µVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ¶ZKLOVW WKH5XVVLDQ )HGHUDWLRQ IDYRXUHG UHVWULFWLQJWKHWH[WWRWHUPVVXFKDVMRLQWGHFLVLRQPDNLQJDQGVHOIPDQDJHPHQW %DUVK±7KHUHSRUWIRUWKHVHVVLRQVWDWHVWKDWµFHUWDLQ*RYHUQPHQWV WRRNWKHSRVLWLRQWKDWWKHULJKWRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQDVUHIHUUHGWRLQDUWLFOH QHHGHG WR EH TXDOL¿HG RU HODERUDWHG LQ DZD\ZKLFK SUHVHUYHV WKH WHUULWRULDO LQWHJULW\RI6WDWHVDQGWKHLUFRQVWLWXWLRQDOIUDPHZRUNVZKHUHWKHVHPHHWFXUUHQW KXPDQULJKWVVWDQGDUGV¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVDSDUD

/DWHU VHVVLRQVRI WKH:*''ZLWQHVVHGJUDGXDO FKDQJHV LQ WKHSRVLWLRQVRI PDQ\VWDWHVWKRXJKQRWDOZD\VLQDGLUHFWLRQIDYRXUDEOHWRLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV $WWKHWKLUGVHVVLRQLQIRUH[DPSOH$XVWUDOLDXQGHUWKHQHZFRQVHUYDWLYH JRYHUQPHQWRI-RKQ+RZDUGVLQFH0DUFK11 allied with the United States, &DQDGDDQG1HZ=HDODQG LQRSSRVLQJPXFKRI WKH WH[W IRUPLQJ WKHVRFDOOHG &$1=86JURXSRI VWDWHV0RUHJHQHUDOO\ KRZHYHU VKLIWV LQ VWDWHV¶ GLVFXUVLYH SRVLWLRQLQJ FDQ EH VHHQ WR JUDGXDOO\ OHDQ WRZDUGV D JURZLQJ UHFRJQLWLRQ RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶ FROOHFWLYH ULJKWV LQFOXGLQJ DFFHSWDQFH RI WKH ULJKW WR VHOI GHWHUPLQDWLRQIRULQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV7KXVE\WKH¿IWKVHVVLRQLQDPDMRULW\ RIVWDWHVVSHDNLQJRQWKHODQJXDJHRI$UWLFOHLQGLFDWHGWKDWWKH\FRXOGDFFHSWLWV LQFOXVLRQVXEMHFWWRFHUWDLQWH[WXDODPHQGPHQWVLQWHQGHGWRSURWHFWWKHWHUULWRULDO LQWHJULW\ RI VWDWHVZKLOH WKH&KDLUSHUVRQ5DSSRUWHXUZDV DOVR DEOH WR FRQFOXGH that ‘the participants in general agreed that the right of self-determination was

WKH FRUQHUVWRQH RI WKH GUDIW GHFODUDWLRQ¶ 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV D SDUD %\ WKH WLPH RI WKH HLJKWK VHVVLRQ LQ PRUHRYHU D VLJQL¿FDQW QXPEHU RI VWDWHVZHUHSUHSDUHG WRDFFHSW WKH ODQJXDJHRI$UWLFOHDVGUDIWHGE\ WKH6XE &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWKRXW DQ\ DPHQGPHQWV RU TXDOL¿FDWLRQV LQFOXGLQJ 'HQPDUN 1RUZD\6ZLW]HUODQG6ZHGHQ6SDLQ)LQODQG)LML3DNLVWDQ*XDWHPDOD0H[LFR &XED&RVWD5LFD%ROLYLD&KLOH(FXDGRUDQG3HUX,QWKHVDPH\HDUWKH8QLWHG States, Canada, New Zealand, and the Russian Federation continued to insist on OLPLWVRQWKHPHDQLQJDQGH[HUFLVHRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQDVDSUHUHTXLVLWHIRUWKHLU VXSSRUWZKLOH$XVWUDOLDVWRRGRXWDVVLQJXODUO\RSSRVHGWRDQ\PHQWLRQRIDULJKW RILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ

Notwithstanding a clear but gradual progression among states within the :*''WRZDUGVDQDFFHSWDQFHRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶FROOHFWLYHULJKWVLQFOXGLQJ WKHULJKWWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQE\WKHHQGRIWKH¿UVW81,QWHUQDWLRQDO'HFDGHRQ ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHLQ±WKHLQLWLDOWLPHIUDPHVSHFL¿HGIRUWKHDGRSWLRQRID GHFODUDWLRQ±WKHZRUNLQJJURXSKDGVWLOORQO\PDQDJHGWRDGRSWWZRDUWLFOHV The IROORZLQJ\HDUWKH:*''KHOGLWV¿QDOVHVVLRQDWZKLFKSDUWLFLSDQWVFRQVLGHUHG YDULRXV SURSRVDOV ZLWK WKH DLP RI UHDFKLQJ FRQVHQVXV RQ WKH WH[W LQFOXGLQJ &KDLUSHUVRQ5DSSRUWHXU /XLV (QULTXH &KiYH]¶V µSURSRVDOV RQ DUWLFOHV¶ 7KH VHVVLRQZDVFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\DQHPHUJLQJFRQVHQVXVRQPDQ\EXWQRWDOORIWKH WH[W¶VDUWLFOHVZLWKNH\LVVXHVVXFKDVVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQODQGVWHUULWRULHVDQG UHVRXUFHVFRQWLQXLQJWRFUHDWHGLVFRUGDQFH$VDUHVXOWDWWKHHQGRIWKHVHVVLRQ &KiYH]WRRNWKHGHFLVLRQWRVXEPLWKLVRZQUHYLVHGSURSRVHGWH[WWRWKHQHZO\ FRQVWLWXWHG+XPDQ5LJKWV&RXQFLOWKH&RXQFLOFRQWDLQLQJDUWLFOHVSURYLVLRQDOO\ DJUHHGXSRQLQWKH:*''DQGKLVRZQSURSRVDOVRQRXWVWDQGLQJLVVXHV At its ¿UVW VHVVLRQ LQ -XQH WKH&RXQFLO RYHU WKHREMHFWLRQVRIVRPHVWDWHVZLWK VL]HDEOH LQGLJHQRXVSRSXODWLRQVDGRSWHG WKH&KDLUSHUVRQ¶VSURSRVHG WH[WE\ LWV

5HVROXWLRQRI-XQHE\DYRWHRILQIDYRXUWRWZRDJDLQVWDQG DEVWHQWLRQV8QLWHG1DWLRQVE15

)ROORZLQJDGRSWLRQE\WKH&RXQFLOWKHWH[WZDVVXEPLWWHGWRWKHVWVHVVLRQ RI WKH *HQHUDO$VVHPEO\ *$ 7KH SURFHVV WRZDUGV DGRSWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH *$ LQFOXGHGDQXPEHURIGHOD\VDQGFRQVLGHUDWLRQVZKLFKDUHRXWOLQHGLQVRPHGHWDLO LQ'DHV±1RWDEO\DWWKHEHKHVWRIWKHJURXSRI$IULFDQVWDWHVOHG E\1DPLELDZKLFKH[SUHVVHGDQXPEHURIFRQFHUQVZLWKWKHWH[WDVDGRSWHGE\ WKH&RXQFLOSDUWLFXODUO\DVUHJDUGVWKHVWDWXVTXRRIH[LVWLQJVWDWHERXQGDULHV FRQVLGHUDWLRQRIWKHWH[WZDVGHIHUUHGXQWLOWKHHQGRIWKHVWVHVVLRQRIWKH*$ LQ6HSWHPEHUWKHUHE\DOORZLQJWLPHIRUIXUWKHUFRQVXOWDWLRQV These were FRQYHQHGLQSDUWE\WKH3HUPDQHQW5HSUHVHQWDWLYHRIWKH3KLOLSSLQHVWRWKH81 +LODULR*'DYLGH -UZKR XQGHUWRRN LQIRUPDO FRQVXOWDWLRQVZLWK DQG UHFHLYHG IHHGEDFN IURPJRYHUQPHQWV 'DHV±&RQVXOWDWLRQVDOVR WRRNSODFH between so-called ‘friends of the Declaration’, which included member states of the European Union and most Latin American states, and those seeking DPHQGPHQWVibid7KHODWWHUJURXSFRPSULVHGRIWKHJURXSRI$IULFDQVWDWHV DQGDQRWKHUJURXSJHQHUDOO\UHIHUUHGWRDVµ&$1=86DQGRWKHUV¶FRPSRVHGRI $XVWUDOLD &DQDGD &RORPELD *X\DQD 1HZ =HDODQG WKH 5XVVLDQ )HGHUDWLRQ DQG 6XULQDP ibid &RQVXOWDWLRQV ZHUH VXFFHVVIXO LQ DGGUHVVLQJ WKH LVVXH RI greatest concern to African states, which was dealt with through the addition of D QHZSURYLVLRQ LQ WKH IRUPRI$UWLFOH WR EH GLVFXVVHG LQ WKH IROORZLQJ VHFWLRQ6XEVHTXHQWO\WKH8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HFODUDWLRQ on the Rights of Indigenous 3HRSOHV 81'5,3ZDV DGRSWHGRQ WKH 6HSWHPEHU E\*$5HVROXWLRQ

$E\DODQGVOLGHDI¿UPDWLYHYRWHRILQIDYRXUZLWKIRXUDJDLQVWDQG DEVWHQWLRQV8QLWHG1DWLRQVD$XVWUDOLD&DQDGD1HZ=HDODQGDQGWKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV YRWHG DJDLQVW WKH 'HFODUDWLRQ$]HUEDLMDQ %DQJODGHVK %KXWDQ %XUXQGL &RORPELD *HRUJLD .HQ\D 1LJHULD WKH 5XVVLDQ )HGHUDWLRQ 6DPRD DQGWKH8NUDLQHDEVWDLQHG$XVWUDOLD1HZ=HDODQG&DQDGDDQGWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV KDYHVLQFHHQGRUVHGWKH81'5,3LQ$SULO$SULO1RYHPEHUDQG 'HFHPEHUUHVSHFWLYHO\18

Key Provisions

7KH81'5,3LVDFRPSUHKHQVLYHLQVWUXPHQWFRQWDLQLQJSUHDPEXODUSDUDJUDSKV DQGDUWLFOHVPDNLQJ LW WKH ORQJHVWKXPDQ ULJKWV LQVWUXPHQW WR HPHUJH IURP WKH81WRGDWH,WLVDOVRWKHRQO\VSHFL¿FDOO\FROOHFWLYHKXPDQULJKWVLQVWUXPHQW UHFRJQL]HGE\WKH81WKLVEHLQJWKHHVVHQFHDQGGLVWLQFWLYHFKDUDFWHURIWKHWH[W DQG µLQGLVSHQVDEOH¶ IRU WKH µH[LVWHQFHZHOOEHLQJ DQG LQWHJUDO GHYHORSPHQW¶ RI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVSUHDPEOH.H\FROOHFWLYHULJKWVUHFRJQL]HGE\WKH81'5,3 include the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination, the right to protection DQGSUHVHUYDWLRQRIWKHLUODQGVWHUULWRULHVDQGUHVRXUFHVDQGWKHULJKWWRPDLQWDLQ DQGSURWHFWWKHLUFXOWXUDOKHULWDJHDQGH[SUHVVLRQV:KLOVWEHLQJDWFRUHDFROOHFWLYH ULJKWVLQVWUXPHQWWKH81'5,3DOVRUHFRJQL]HVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVLQGLYLGXDOV WRHTXDOLW\DQGQRQGLVFULPLQDWLRQSUHDPEOH$UW0RUHRYHUWKRXJKWKHWH[W IRFXVHVSUHGRPLQDQWO\RQWKHµWUDGLWLRQDODQGWKHWHUULWRULDO¶LWGRHVDOVRSURYLGH SURWHFWLRQV IRU LQGLJHQRXV LQGLYLGXDOV ZKR KDYH EHHQPDUJLQDOL]HG IURP WKHLU FRPPXQLWLHVE\ VRFLDO DQGGHYHORSPHQWSURFHVVHV 7KRUQEHUU\ IRU H[DPSOHLQUHODWLRQWRFRQGLWLRQVRIHPSOR\PHQWDQGODERXU$UW

$VQRWHGLQWKHSUHYLRXVVHFWLRQLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶FRUHGHPDQGIRUWKHULJKWWR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQLVFRQWDLQHGLQ$UWLFOHZKLFKDVLQWKH'UDIW81'HFODUDWLRQ UHVWDWHVZLWKRXWDQ\TXDOL¿FDWLRQH[LVWLQJLQWHUQDWLRQDOODZFRQFHUQLQJWKHULJKWWR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ$UWLFOHLVWREHUHDGLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKDQXPEHURIDUWLFOHV LQ SDUWLFXODU$UWLFOHV DQG ZKLFK WRJHWKHU GH¿QH WKH PHDQLQJ DQG FRQWHQWRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQLQWHQGHGE\WKH'HFODUDWLRQ7KHPDLQLQWHUSUHWDWLYH SURYLVLRQLVDUJXDEO\$UWLFOHZKLFKLVUHFRJQL]HGDVUHFRQFLOLQJLQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶GHPDQGVIRUDIXOODQGHTXDOH[SUHVVLRQRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQDVFRQWDLQHG LQWKHODQJXDJHRI$UWLFOHDQGVWDWHV¶FRQFHUQVUHJDUGLQJWKHLUWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\

$UWLFOH ZDV LQWURGXFHG SULPDULO\ LQ UHVSRQVH WR WKH FRQFHUQV RI$IULFDQ VWDWHVDQGHVVHQWLDOO\HVWDEOLVKHV WKDW LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVGRQRWKDYH WKH ULJKW XQLODWHUDOO\WRVHFHGHIURPH[LVWLQJVWDWHV

$UWLFOHGUDZVRQWKHODQJXDJHRI$UWLFOHRIWKH'HFODUDWLRQRQWKH 3ULQFLSOHVRI,QWHUQDWLRQDO/DZ&RQFHUQLQJ)ULHQGO\5HODWLRQVDQG&RRSHUDWLRQ DPRQJ 6WDWHV 'HFODUDWLRQ RQ )ULHQGO\ 5HODWLRQV DOVR NQRZQ DV 5HVROXWLRQ ;;9EXWGLYHUJHV IURP WKH ODWWHU LQRPLWWLQJ DQ\ VXJJHVWLRQRI VWDWHV¶ REOLJDWLRQVLQVHFXULQJWKHLUWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\DQGSROLWLFDOXQLW\$VSHU$UWLFOH RIWKH'HFODUDWLRQRQ)ULHQGO\5HODWLRQVWKHWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\DQGSROLWLFDOXQLW\ RI VWDWHV LVJHQHUDOO\QRW UHJDUGHGDVDQDEVROXWHSULQFLSOH WKDWFDQEH LQYRNHG under all circumstances, but as dependent upon states’ respecting the ‘principle of HTXDOULJKWVDQGVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQRISHRSOHV¶8QLWHG1DWLRQV$UWDV IROORZV

$VGLVFXVVHGLQVRPHGHWDLOLQ&KDSWHUWKLVSURYLVLRQRSHQVXSWKHSRVVLELOLW\RI VHFHVVLRQLQFDVHVZKHUHDJRYHUQPHQWLVHQJDJHGLQV\VWHPDWLFGLVFULPLQDWLRQRU H[SORLWDWLRQDJDLQVWDGH¿QHGVXEQDWLRQDOJURXSDQGIRUPVWKHEDVLVRIDGRFWULQH RIUHPHGLDOVHFHVVLRQLQLQWHUQDWLRQDOODZ7KHRPLVVLRQIURP$UWLFOHRIDQ\ such reference to the remedial circumstances under which sub-national groups PD\SXUVXHVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQWKURXJKVHFHVVLRQPHDQVWKDW$UWLFOHRIWKH 81'5,3 LV FRQVLGHUHGPRUH UHVWULFWLYH WKDQ WKH'HFODUDWLRQ DQG LQGHHG LWVLQWHQWLRQLVWRµUXOHRXWDQ\LQWHUSUHWDWLRQRIWKHULJKWWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQRI

LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV WKDWPLJKWDOORZIRUVHFHVVLRQ¶(LGH19+RZHYHU $UWLFOH GRHV QRW VXSHUVHGH JHQHUDO LQWHUQDWLRQDO ODZ SDUWLFXODUO\ ZKHUH LW FRQVWLWXWHV LQWHUQDWLRQDO FXVWRPDU\ ODZ DV LQ WKH FDVH RI 5HVROXWLRQ ;;97KHVWLSXODWLRQVRI5HVROXWLRQ;;9LQREOLJLQJVWDWHVWRFRPSO\ ZLWK WKH µSULQFLSOHV RI HTXDO ULJKWV DQG VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQRI SHRSOHV¶ DQG WKH FRQGLWLRQDOLW\RIWKHSULQFLSOHRIWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\LPSOLHGE\WKLVDUHUHDI¿UPHG LQWKH9LHQQD'HFODUDWLRQDQG3URJUDPPHRI$FWLRQ8QLWHG1DWLRQV 3ULQFLSOH,$UW

7KHLPSRUWDQFHRI$UWWRWKHDGRSWLRQRIWKH81'5,3LQ6HSWHPEHULV UHÀHFWHGLQVWDWHV¶YRWLQJH[SODQDWLRQVRQWKH'HFODUDWLRQPDQ\RIZKLFKH[SUHVVDQ XQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQDVH[HUFLVHG ZLWKUHJDUGIRUWKHWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\DQGSROLWLFDOXQLW\RIVWDWHV3DUDJXD\IRU H[DPSOHDVVHUWHGWKDWµWKH'HFODUDWLRQ¶VUHIHUHQFHWRVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQUHIHUUHG WR DFWV DQG ULJKWV WKDW ZRXOG QRW LQWHUIHUH ZLWK WKH VRYHUHLJQW\ RU SROLWLFDO XQLW\RI6WDWHV¶8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HSDUWPHQWRI3XEOLF,QIRUPDWLRQ7KH 3KLOLSSLQHVVLPLODUO\GHFODUHGWKDWLWVVXSSRUWZDVSUHPLVHGRQWKHXQGHUVWDQGLQJ WKDW µWKH ULJKW WR VHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQ VKDOO QRW EH FRQVWUXHG DV HQFRXUDJLQJ DQ\ DFWLRQWKDWZRXOGGLVPHPEHURULPSDLUWKHWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\RUSROLWLFDOXQLW\RI DVRYHUHLJQRULQGHSHQGHQW6WDWH¶ibid$UJHQWLQDPRUHVSHFL¿FDOO\GHVFULEHG µWKHLQFOXVLRQLQSDUDJUDSKRI$UWLFOHRIFRQGLWLRQVIRUWKHDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKH 'HFODUDWLRQ¶DVPDNLQJWKH81'5,3µIXOO\FRPSDWLEOHZLWKSULQFLSOHVSHUWDLQLQJ WRWKHWHUULWRULDOLQWHJULW\QDWLRQDOXQLW\DQGRUJDQL]DWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHRIHDFK6WDWH¶ 8QLWHG1DWLRQVI

7KRXJKVWDWHV¶FRQFHUQV UHJDUGLQJ WKHLU WHUULWRULDO LQWHJULW\VHHPWRSRLQW WR aspirations on the part of indigenous peoples for secession, in point of fact secession ±ZLWKIHZH[FHSWLRQV±LVQRWZKDWLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVKDYHEHHQGHPDQGLQJDQG in this respect the core content of indigenous peoples’ right to self-determination is GHDOWZLWKLQ$UWLFOHVDQG$UWLFOHUHFRJQL]HVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV WRDXWRQRP\DQGVHOIJRYHUQPHQWZKLFKLVJHQHUDOO\ORRNHGXSRQDVFRQVWLWXWLQJ WKH SROLWLFDO SUHFRQGLWLRQ IRU SUHVHUYLQJ DQG GHYHORSLQJ LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶ FXOWXUHVLGHQWLWLHVDQGZD\VRIOLIH7KHVFRSHRIVHOIJRYHUQPHQWLVVHWRXWLQ $UWLFOH DV HQFRPSDVVLQJ µPDWWHUV UHODWLQJ WR WKHLU LQWHUQDO DQG ORFDO DIIDLUV¶ 7KHH[WHQWRUUDQJHRIDXWRQRPRXVJRYHUQDQFHLVQRWPDGHFOHDUIURP$UWLFOH SUHVXPDEO\DSRVLWLYHGHWDLOLQWKDWLWDOORZVIRUÀH[LELOLW\LQWKHIDFHRIWKHYDULHW\ of indigenous peoples’ circumstances and aspirations, but it can be assumed, when WDNHQLQWKHFRQWH[WRIWKHZLGHUGHFODUDWLRQDQGLWVSURYLVLRQVRQFXOWXUHUHOLJLRQ HGXFDWLRQPHGLDKHDOWKKRXVLQJHPSOR\PHQWVRFLDOZHOIDUHPHPEHUVKLSDQG ODQGVDQGUHVRXUFHVWKDWLWFRQWHPSODWHVWKHPRVWH[WHQVLYHDQGFRPSUHKHQVLYH SRVVLEOHVHOIJRYHUQPHQW7KHUHLVQRUHIHUHQFHLQ$UWLFOHWRDULJKWWRWHUULWRULDO VHOIJRYHUQPHQWEXWDJDLQ WKLVVKRXOGEH WKRXJKWRIDV LPSOLFLWO\FRQWDLQHGLQ DQ\ULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRVHOIJRYHUQPHQW$VH[SUHVVHGE\WKHDXWKRUV RIWKHUHFHQW,QWHUQDWLRQDO/DZ$VVRFLDWLRQ,/$UHSRUWRQWKHPHDQLQJVFRSH DQGVWDWXVRIWKH81'5,3µLQOLJKWRIWKHH[WHQWWRZKLFKWKHVRFLDOHFRQRPLFDQG political life of indigenous peoples is connected to land, it appears unreasonable WKDWWKHHIIHFWLYHJXDUDQWHHRIWKHULJKWWRDXWRQRP\RUVHOIJRYHUQPHQWPD\EH DFKLHYHGZLWKRXWVRPHUHFRJQLWLRQRIFRQWUROE\LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVRIWKHODQGV WKH\ KDYH WUDGLWLRQDOO\ RZQHG RFFXSLHG RU RWKHUZLVH XVHG RU DFTXLUHG¶ ,/$

$UWLFOHRIIHUVIXUWKHUFODUL¿FDWLRQDVWRWKHPHDQLQJRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV ULJKWWRVHOIJRYHUQPHQWDQGVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQSDUWLFXODUO\LQUHJDUGWRLWVµGXDO DVSHFWV¶ZKHUHE\LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVDUHµDSSURSULDWHO\YLHZHGDVVLPXOWDQHRXVO\ GLVWLQFWIURP\HW MRLQHGWR ODUJHUXQLWVRIVRFLDODQGSROLWLFDO LQWHUDFWLRQXQLWV WKDWPD\ LQFOXGH LQGLJHQRXV IHGHUDWLRQV WKH VWDWHVZLWKLQZKLFK WKH\ OLYH DQG WKHJOREDOFRPPXQLW\LWVHOI¶$QD\D7KXVRQWKHRQHKDQG$UWLFOH SURYLGHVWKDWLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVKDYHWKHµULJKWWRPDLQWDLQDQGVWUHQJWKHQWKHLU distinct political, legal, economic, social, and cultural institutions’, which are not GH¿QHGEXWZKLFKFDQEHWDNHQWRUHIHUWRWKHYDULRXVFXVWRPVODZVWUDGLWLRQV and practices of indigenous peoples through which political, social, economic, and FXOWXUDOOLIHLVUHJXODWHG2QWKHRWKHUKDQG$UWLFOHDVVHUWVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVWRµSDUWLFLSDWHIXOO\LIWKH\VRFKRRVHLQWKHSROLWLFDOHFRQRPLFVRFLDO DQG FXOWXUDO OLIH RI WKH 6WDWH¶ µ,QZDUG DQG RXWZDUGORRNLQJ DVVRFLDWLRQDO SDWWHUQV¶$QD\DDUHDOVRPDQLIHVWLQ$UWLFOHZKLFKDI¿UPVWKHULJKW of indigenous peoples to ‘participate in decision-making in matters which would

DIIHFW WKHLU ULJKWV WKURXJK UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV FKRVHQE\ WKHPVHOYHV LQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWKWKHLURZQSURFHGXUHVDVZHOODVWRPDLQWDLQDQGGHYHORSWKHLURZQGHFLVLRQ PDNLQJLQVWLWXWLRQV¶

2WKHU SURYLVLRQV SHUWLQHQW WR DXWRQRPRXV JRYHUQDQFH LQFOXGH $UWLFOH which calls upon states to ‘consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous SHRSOHVFRQFHUQHGWKURXJKWKHLUUHSUHVHQWDWLYHLQVWLWXWLRQVLQRUGHUWRREWDLQWKHLU IUHHSULRU DQG LQIRUPHGFRQVHQWEHIRUH DGRSWLQJDQG LPSOHPHQWLQJ OHJLVODWLYH RU DGPLQLVWUDWLYH PHDVXUHV WKDW PD\ DIIHFW WKHP¶$UWLFOH SURYLGHV WKDW µLQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV KDYH WKH ULJKW WR PDLQWDLQ DQG GHYHORS WKHLU SROLWLFDO HFRQRPLF DQG VRFLDO V\VWHPV RU LQVWLWXWLRQV WR EH VHFXUH LQ WKH HQMR\PHQW RI WKHLU RZQPHDQV RI VXEVLVWHQFH DQG GHYHORSPHQW DQG WR HQJDJH IUHHO\ LQ DOO WKHLU WUDGLWLRQDO DQG RWKHU HFRQRPLF DFWLYLWLHV¶$UWLFOH IXUWKHU UHFRJQL]HV WKDW LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVKDYH WKH ULJKW WR µSURPRWHGHYHORSDQGPDLQWDLQ WKHLU LQVWLWXWLRQDO VWUXFWXUHV DQG WKHLU GLVWLQFWLYH FXVWRPV VSLULWXDOLW\ WUDGLWLRQV SURFHGXUHVSUDFWLFHVDQGLQFDVHVZKHUHWKH\H[LVWMXULGLFDOV\VWHPVRUFXVWRPV LQDFFRUGDQFHZLWKLQWHUQDWLRQDOKXPDQULJKWVVWDQGDUGV¶

3URYLVLRQVUHOHYDQWWRWKHVDIHJXDUGLQJRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶ODQGVDQGWHUULWRULHV DUHIRUWKHPRVWSDUWFOXVWHUHGLQ$UWLFOHV±7KHSURIRXQGDQGµGLVWLQFWLYHVSLULWXDO UHODWLRQVKLS¶WKDWLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVKDYHZLWKWKHLUHQYLURQPHQWLVKLJKOLJKWHGLQ $UWLFOHZKLFKLVDSULQFLSOHWKDWDSSOLHVWRµODQGVWHUULWRULHVZDWHUVDQGFRDVWDO VHDV DQG RWKHU UHVRXUFHV¶ WKDWPD\ RUPD\ QRW EH SUHVHQWO\ RZQHG RFFXSLHG RU used, and which highlights the interrelationship between indigenous peoples’ land, UHVRXUFHDQGWHUULWRULDOULJKWVDQGLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶FXOWXUDOZRUOGV$UWLFOHLV DUJXDEO\WKHPRVWVLJQL¿FDQWSURYLVLRQGHDOLQJZLWKODQGVWHUULWRULHVDQGUHVRXUFHV DQGUHFRJQL]HVLQ$UWLFOHWKHJHQHUDOULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRWKHODQGV WHUULWRULHVDQGUHVRXUFHVWKDWWKH\KDYHWUDGLWLRQDOO\RZQHGRFFXSLHGRUXVHGDQG LQ$UWLFOH LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶ ULJKW WR RZQ XVH GHYHORS DQG FRQWURO WKH ODQGV WHUULWRULHV DQG UHVRXUFHV WKH\ FXUUHQWO\SRVVHVV$QRUGLQDU\ LQWHUSUHWDWLRQ RI$UWLFOHRIIHUVDUREXVWULJKWPDNLQJLWKLJKO\FRQWHQWLRXVZLWKDQXPEHURI VWDWHVWKRXJKWRWKHH[WHQWWKDWWKHUHIHUHQFHLQ$UWLFOHWRµODQGVWHUULWRULHV DQGUHVRXUFHVWKDWWKH\KDYHWUDGLWLRQDOO\RZQHGRFFXSLHGRUXVHG¶PLJKWDSSHDULQ VRPHFDVHVWRLQFOXGHWKHZKROHRIDVWDWH¶VWHUULWRU\WKH'HFODUDWLRQHYLGHQWO\GRHV QRWLQWHQGWRPHDQDOORIWKHWHUULWRU\RQFHXVHGRURFFXSLHGE\LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV EXWVLQFHORVW±DFRQFHUQQRWHGE\FHUWDLQVWDWHVLQWKHLULQWHUSUHWDWLYHVWDWHPHQWVRQ WKH81'5,31RWDEO\LQH[SODLQLQJLWVQHJDWLYHYRWHRQWKH81'5,3LQ6HSWHPEHU $XVWUDOLDYRLFHGWKHFRQFHUQWKDW8QLWHG1DWLRQVI

7ZR SURYLVLRQV LQ SDUWLFXODU FOHDUO\ FRQWHPSODWH WKDW VRPH ODQGV WHUULWRULHV DQG UHVRXUFHV FDQQRW EH UHWXUQHG QDPHO\$UWLFOH HVWDEOLVKLQJ D SURFHVV RI DGMXGLFDWLRQRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶WHUULWRULHVQRORQJHULQWKHLUSRVVHVVLRQDQG $UWLFOHZKLFKHVWDEOLVKHVWKDW

2WKHU ODQG ULJKWV SURYLVLRQV LQFOXGH$UWLFOH SURKLELWLQJ WKH IRUFLEOH UHPRYDO of indigenous peoples from their lands and territories, or their relocation ‘without the free, prior, and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and DIWHU DJUHHPHQW RQ MXVW DQG IDLU FRPSHQVDWLRQ DQG ZKHUH SRVVLEOH ZLWK WKH RSWLRQRIUHWXUQ¶$UWLFOHIXUWKHUDI¿UPVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRWKH FRQVHUYDWLRQDQGSURWHFWLRQRI WKHLUHQYLURQPHQWDQG WKHSURGXFWLYHFDSDFLW\RI WKHLUODQGVDQGUHVRXUFHVDQGFDOOVRQVWDWHVWRµWDNHHIIHFWLYHPHDVXUHVWRHQVXUH that no storage or disposal of hazardous materials shall take place’ without their FRQVHQW7KHULJKWRI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV WRGHWHUPLQHDQGGHYHORSSULRULWLHVIRU WKH GHYHORSPHQW DQG XVH RI WKHLU ODQGV WHUULWRULHV DQG UHVRXUFHV LV UHFRJQL]HG LQ$UWLFOHZKLFKDOVRUHTXLUHVWKDWVWDWHVREWDLQWKHµIUHHSULRUDQGLQIRUPHG FRQVHQW¶RILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVSULRUWRWKHDSSURYDORIDQ\SURMHFWDIIHFWLQJWKHLU ODQGV DQG WHUULWRULHV SDUWLFXODUO\ ZKHUH LQYROYLQJ WKH H[SORLWDWLRQ RI PLQHUDO ZDWHURURWKHUUHVRXUFHV¶

5HIHUHQFHV WR WKH FXOWXUDO LQWHJULW\ RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV DUH VFDWWHUHG WKURXJKRXW WKH WH[W PDNLQJ WKH SURWHFWLRQ DQG FHOHEUDWLRQ RI LQGLJHQRXV FXOWXUHV FULWLFDO WR DQ XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH 81'5,3 .H\ SURWHFWLRQV FDQ EH IRXQGLQ$UWLFOHVDQGZKLFKSURWHFWLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVIURPJHQRFLGHDQG HWKQRFLGHUHVSHFWLYHO\WKRXJKZLWKRXWXVLQJWKHODWWHUWHUP$UWLFOHDVVHUWV WKDW LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVKDYHµWKHFROOHFWLYHULJKW WROLYHLQIUHHGRPSHDFHDQG VHFXULW\DVGLVWLQFWSHRSOHVDQGVKDOOQRWEHVXEMHFWHGWRJHQRFLGHRUDQ\RWKHUDFW RIYLROHQFHLQFOXGLQJIRUFLEO\UHPRYLQJFKLOGUHQRIWKHJURXSWRDQRWKHUJURXS¶ 7KHUHIHUHQFHWRWKHUHPRYDORIFKLOGUHQUHFDOOV$UWLFOH,,HRIWKH8QLWHG Nations &RQYHQWLRQRQWKH3UHYHQWLRQDQG3XQLVKPHQWRIWKH&ULPHRI*HQRFLGH 81 *HQRFLGH &RQYHQWLRQ DQG UHVSRQGV WR WKH ZLGHVSUHDG DQG QRZ ZHOO GRFXPHQWHGH[SHULHQFHVRI LQGLJHQRXVFKLOGUHQSDUWLFXODUO\ LQ WKH$QJORSKRQH ZRUOGVXEMHFWHGWRIRUFLEOHUHPRYDOIURPWKHLUIDPLOLHVDQGSODFHPHQWLQVFKRROV

and institutions where efforts were made to rid them of their cultural attachments DQGLGHQWLW\DVDPHDQV WREULQJDERXW WKHHYHQWXDOGLVDSSHDUDQFHRI WKHJURXS VHH HJ +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG (TXDO 2SSRUWXQLWLHV &RPPLVVLRQ $UWLFOH VLPLODUO\ZKLFKHPSKDVL]HVWKHREOLJDWLRQVRIVWDWHVLQµSURYLGLQJHIIHFWLYH PHFKDQLVPVIRUSUHYHQWLRQRIDQGUHGUHVVIRU¶DFWLRQVOLDEOHWROHDGWRWKHGHVWUXFWLRQ RI LQGLJHQRXVFXOWXUHV UHVSRQGV WR WKHPXOWLSOH IRUPVRIFXOWXUDOYLROHQFH WKDW LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV KDYH EHHQ VXEMHFWHG WR LQFOXGLQJ IRUFHG DVVLPLODWLRQ DQG integration, forced population transfers, propaganda intended to promote or incite ethnic discrimination, and ‘actions with the aim or effect of dispossessing them RIWKHLUODQGVWHUULWRULHVRUUHVRXUFHV¶7KHODWWHUFODXVH±$UWLFOHE±UHFDOOV $UWLFOH PHQWLRQHG DERYH DI¿UPLQJ WKH ULJKW RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV QRW WR EHIRUFLEO\UHPRYHGIURPWKHLU ODQGVDQG WHUULWRULHVD IRUPRIYLROHQFHZLGHO\ XQGHUVWRRGWRWKUHDWHQWKHYHU\VXUYLYDORILQGLJHQRXVFXOWXUHVDQGZD\VRIOLIH $UWLFOHGRHVQRWUHIHUWRHLWKHUµHWKQRFLGH¶RUµFXOWXUDOJHQRFLGH¶WKRXJKWKH actions described constitute ethnocide as per UNESCO’s 1981 Declaration of San -RVp GUDZQ XS E\ DPHHWLQJ RI H[SHUWVZKLFK VHUYHV DV D VWDQGDUG UHIHUHQFH 81(6&2

$UWLFOHV±DUHNH\WRWKHSURWHFWLRQRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶FXOWXUDOLQWHJULW\ GLJQLW\DQGÀRXULVKLQJ$UWLFOHDI¿UPVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRSUDFWLFH DQG UHYLWDOL]H WKHLU FXOWXUDO WUDGLWLRQV DQG FXVWRPVZKLFK LQFOXGHV WKH ULJKW WR µPDLQWDLQSURWHFWDQGGHYHORSWKHSDVWSUHVHQWDQGIXWXUHPDQLIHVWDWLRQVRIWKHLU cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, WHFKQRORJLHVDQGYLVXDODQGSHUIRUPLQJDUWVDQGOLWHUDWXUH¶7KHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ FODXVHUHTXLUHV WKDWµ6WDWHVVKDOOSURYLGHUHGUHVV WKURXJKHIIHFWLYHPHFKDQLVPV ZKLFKPD\LQFOXGHUHVWLWXWLRQGHYHORSHGLQFRQMXQFWLRQZLWKLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV ZLWKUHVSHFWWRWKHLUFXOWXUDOLQWHOOHFWXDOUHOLJLRXVDQGVSLULWXDOSURSHUW\WDNHQZLWK WKHLUIUHHSULRUDQGLQIRUPHGFRQVHQW¶$VZLWKPDQ\RWKHUULJKWVHQFRPSDVVHG ZLWKLQWKHJHQHUDOFXOWXUDOLQWHJULW\QRUPLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIWKHULJKWFDOOVQRWRQO\ IRUUHVWUDLQWRQWKHSDUWRIJRYHUQPHQWVWRUHIUDLQIURPFRQWLQXLQJKDUPIXODFWLRQV EXW HQWLWOHV LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV WR VRPH IRUP RI SRVLWLYH RU DI¿UPDWLYH DFWLRQ LQWHQGHGWRµUHPHG\WKHSDVWXQGHUPLQLQJRIWKHLUFXOWXUDOVXUYLYDO¶$QD\D $UWLFOHUHFRJQL]HVWKHULJKWRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRµPDQLIHVWSUDFWLFH GHYHORSDQGWHDFKWKHLUVSLULWXDODQGUHOLJLRXVWUDGLWLRQVFXVWRPVDQGFHUHPRQLHV¶

µPDLQWDLQSURWHFWDQGKDYHDFFHVVLQSULYDF\WRWKHLUUHOLJLRXVDQGFXOWXUDOVLWHV¶ µXVHDQGFRQWURORIWKHLUFHUHPRQLDOREMHFWV¶DQGUHSDWULDWLRQRIKXPDQUHPDLQV $UWLFOHIRFXVHVRQOLYLQJFXOWXUDOKHULWDJHRULQWDQJLEOHKHULWDJHGH¿QHGLQWKH 81(6&2&RQYHQWLRQRQWKH6DIHJXDUGLQJRIWKH,QWDQJLEOH&XOWXUDO+HULWDJHDV 81(6&2$UWµWKHSUDFWLFHVUHSUHVHQWDWLRQVH[SUHVVLRQVNQRZOHGJH DQGVNLOOV±DVZHOODVWKHLQVWUXPHQWVREMHFWVDQGDUWHIDFWVDQGFXOWXUDOVSDFHV DVVRFLDWHGKHUHZLWK±WKDWFRPPXQLWLHVJURXSVDQGLQVRPHFDVHVLQGLYLGXDOV recognize as part of their cultural heritage’, and which is ‘transmitted from JHQHUDWLRQ WR JHQHUDWLRQ¶ µFRQVWDQWO\ UHFUHDWHG E\ FRPPXQLWLHV DQG JURXSV LQ UHVSRQVH WR WKHLU HQYLURQPHQW WKHLU LQWHUDFWLRQ ZLWK QDWXUH DQG WKHLU KLVWRU\¶ DQGZKLFKµSURYLGHVWKHPZLWKDVHQVHRILGHQWLW\DQGFRQWLQXLW\WKXVSURPRWLQJ UHVSHFWIRUFXOWXUDOGLYHUVLW\DQGKXPDQFUHDWLYLW\¶$UWLFOHDI¿UPVWKHULJKWRI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRµUHYLWDOL]HXVHGHYHORSDQGWUDQVPLWWRIXWXUHJHQHUDWLRQV WKHLU KLVWRULHV ODQJXDJHV RUDO WUDGLWLRQV SKLORVRSKLHV ZULWLQJ V\VWHPV DQG literatures’ and to ‘retain their own names for communities, places and persons’, DQGFDOOVRQVWDWHVWRµHQVXUHWKLVULJKWLVSURWHFWHG¶$UWLFOHUHÀHFWVWKHJHQHUDO WHQRURIWKH'HFODUDWLRQLQUHFRJQL]LQJWKHG\QDPLVPRILQGLJHQRXVFXOWXUHVDQG in conferring upon indigenous peoples the right to determine the direction of their RZQFXOWXUDOHYROXWLRQ

$QXPEHURI IXUWKHUSURYLVLRQV UHÀHFWDFRQFHUQ IRUFXOWXUDOSURWHFWLRQDQG WUDQVPLVVLRQ/LQJXLVWLFLQWHJULW\LVSURWHFWHGLQ$UWLFOHVDQGLQWKHFRQWH[W RI PHGLD DQG HGXFDWLRQ UHVSHFWLYHO\ ZKLOH$UWLFOH UHFRJQL]HV WKH ULJKW RI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV WR WKH µGLJQLW\ DQG GLYHUVLW\ RI WKHLU FXOWXUHV WUDGLWLRQV KLVWRULHVDQGDVSLUDWLRQV¶ZKLFKDUH WREHµDSSURSULDWHO\UHÀHFWHGLQHGXFDWLRQ DQGSXEOLFLQIRUPDWLRQ¶$VIRULQGLJHQRXVLQWHOOHFWXDOSURSHUW\$UWLFOHDI¿UPV WKH ULJKWRI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV WR µPDLQWDLQ FRQWURO SURWHFW DQGGHYHORS WKHLU LQWHOOHFWXDOSURSHUW\¶RYHUWKHLUµFXOWXUDOKHULWDJHDQGWUDGLWLRQDONQRZOHGJH¶EXW IDOOVVKRUWRIUHFRJQL]LQJRZQHUVKLS

/LPLWV RQ WKH ULJKW WR FXOWXUDO DXWRQRP\ DUH SUHVHQW LQ$UWLFOH ZKLFK UHFRJQL]HV WKDW LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV KDYH WKH ULJKW WR µSURPRWH GHYHORS DQG PDLQWDLQ WKHLU LQVWLWXWLRQDO VWUXFWXUHV DQG WKHLU GLVWLQFWLYH FXVWRPV VSLULWXDOLW\ WUDGLWLRQV SURFHGXUHV DQG SUDFWLFHV¶ DV ZHOO DV WKHLU MXULGLFDO V\VWHPV DQG FXVWRPV µLQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK LQWHUQDWLRQDO KXPDQ ULJKWV VWDQGDUGV¶ 7KLV limitation is applicable to the UNDRIP as a whole, as established in Article ZKLFK VWDWHV WKDW µLQ WKH H[HUFLVHRI WKH ULJKWV HQXQFLDWHG LQ WKHSUHVHQW 'HFODUDWLRQKXPDQULJKWVDQG IXQGDPHQWDO IUHHGRPVRIDOO VKDOOEHSURWHFWHG¶ $Q\ OLPLWVPXVW KRZHYHUPHHW WKH FULWHULD VHW RXW LQ WKH$UWLFOH WKDW WKH\ DUH µQRQGLVFULPLQDWRU\DQGVWULFWO\QHFHVVDU\VROHO\IRUWKHSXUSRVHRIVHFXULQJGXH recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the MXVWDQGPRVWFRPSHOOLQJUHTXLUHPHQWVRIDGHPRFUDWLFVRFLHW\¶

Other United Nations Initiatives

Other Relevant Normative Content

,Q DGGLWLRQ WR WKH FRUH LQVWUXPHQWV RXWOLQHG DERYH WKHUH DUH D QXPEHU RI programmatic statements, comments, resolutions, and recommendations on indigenous peoples’ rights that can be considered as both representing indicators RIDQGFRQWULEXWLQJWRGHYHORSLQJLQWHUQDWLRQDOODZDQGSUDFWLFH

$PRQJVWWKHPRVWLQÀXHQWLDORIWKHVHDUHDQXPEHURIFRQFOXGLQJREVHUYDWLRQV DQGJHQHUDO UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV LVVXHG IURPZLWKLQ WKH81 WUHDW\ V\VWHPZKLFK FDUU\ZHLJKWWRWKHH[WHQWWKDWWKH81KXPDQULJKWVWUHDWLHVJHQHUDWHOHJDOGXWLHV LQFXPEHQWXSRQUDWLI\LQJVWDWHVDQGFRQVWLWXWHIRUPVRIµKDUGODZ¶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¿FDQWREVHUYDWLRQVKDYH LPSLQJHGRQLVVXHVRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQODQGDQGUHVRXUFHULJKWVDQGHTXDOLW\ DQGQRQGLVFULPLQDWLRQ2ISDUWLFXODUQRWHWKH+XPDQ5LJKWV&RPPLWWHH+5& KDVZLWKUHJXODULW\DI¿UPHGDQXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIVHOIGHWHUPLQDWLRQDVDSSO\LQJWR LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVXQGHU$UWLFOHRIWKH,&&35DVIRUH[DPSOHLQLWVFRQFOXGLQJ REVHUYDWLRQV RQ 1RUZD\ &DQDGD DQG WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV +5& D E DEF&RQFOXGLQJREVHUYDWLRQVFRQWDLQDFRPPLWWHH¶VRSLQLRQVRQ DVWDWHSDUW\UHSRUWDQGDUHWKHPDLQPHFKDQLVPIRUPRQLWRULQJDQGLPSOHPHQWLQJ XQGHUWKHWUHDWLHV*HQHUDOFRPPHQWVRUUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVGRQRWUHIHUWRVSHFL¿F VWDWHVDQGWHQGWRHODERUDWHRQWKHLQWHUSUHWDWLRQRIWUHDW\REOLJDWLRQVEDVHGRQWKH DFFXPXODWHGH[SHULHQFHRIDFRPPLWWHHLQUHYLHZLQJVWDWHSDUW\UHSRUWV*HQHUDO UHFRPPHQGDWLRQVIRFXVHGVSHFL¿FDOO\RQLQGLJHQRXVFRQFHUQVKDYHEHHQLVVXHG E\WKH&RPPLWWHHRQWKH(OLPLQDWLRQRI5DFLDO'LVFULPLQDWLRQ&(5'&(5' DQGPRUHUHFHQWO\WKH&RPPLWWHHRQWKH5LJKWVRIWKH&KLOG&5&&5& &(5'¶V*HQHUDO5HFRPPHQGDWLRQLVSDUWLFXODUO\LPSRUWDQWLQFDOOLQJ upon states ‘to recognize and protect the rights of indigenous peoples to own,

GHYHORS FRQWURO DQG XVH WKHLU FRPPXQDO ODQGV WHUULWRULHV DQG UHVRXUFHV DQG ZKHUHWKH\KDYHEHHQGHSULYHGRIWKHLUODQGVDQGWHUULWRULHVWUDGLWLRQDOO\RZQHG or otherwise inhabited or used without their free and informed consent, to take VWHSVWRUHWXUQWKRVHODQGVDQGWHUULWRULHV¶&(5'SDUD,QWHUSUHWDWLRQV LVVXHG E\ &(5' DUH HVSHFLDOO\ LQÀXHQWLDO LQVRIDU DV WKH SURKLELWLRQ RI UDFLDO GLVFULPLQDWLRQLVDSHUHPSWRU\QRUPRUjus cogensRILQWHUQDWLRQDOODZ

$VLJQL¿FDQWDPRXQWRIQRUPDWLYHFRQWHQWRQWKHULJKWVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV can also be found in the declarations and programs of actions arising out of highOHYHO81 VXPPLWV RU LVVXHVSHFL¿F81VSRQVRUHGZRUOG FRQIHUHQFHV RIZKLFK WKHUHZDVDSUROLIHUDWLRQGXULQJWKHVDQGEH\RQGWKHPLOOHQQLXP7DNHQDV opportunities to sow new rights and norms in international law, such conferences JHQHUDOO\FXOPLQDWHLQWKHDGRSWLRQRIQRQELQGLQJLQVWUXPHQWVWKDWQHYHUWKHOHVV UHÀHFWDQLQWHUQDWLRQDOFRQVHQVXVDQGIURPZKLFKPRUHH[SOLFLWO\ELQGLQJUXOHVRI LQWHUQDWLRQDOODZPD\HYHQWXDOO\HPHUJH,QGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶LVVXHVKDYHUHFHLYHG attention at a range of global ad hoc conferences, with indigenous concerns emerging DVUHOHYDQWQRWRQO\WRLVVXHVRIKXPDQULJKWVEXWDOVRVXVWDLQDEOHGHYHORSPHQW DQG WKH HQYLURQPHQW ,QVWUXPHQWV HPHUJLQJ IURP WKH 81 &RQIHUHQFH RQ (QYLURQPHQW DQG 'HYHORSPHQW LQ 5LR ± WKH VRFDOOHG (DUWK 6XPPLW ± PDNH H[WHQVLYH UHIHUHQFHV WR LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV$JHQGD LQSDUWLFXODU FRQWDLQV D FKDSWHU &KDSWHU GHYRWHG WR µ5HFRJQL]LQJ DQG 6WUHQJWKHQLQJ WKH 5ROH RI Indigenous People and their Communities’ in which it makes the link between the ULJKWVDQGVHFXULW\RILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVDQGHQYLURQPHQWDOO\VRXQGGHYHORSPHQW DVIROORZV8QLWHG1DWLRQVD&KSDUD

7KHµYLWDOUROH¶RIWUDGLWLRQDOLQGLJHQRXVNQRZOHGJHIRUVXVWDLQDEOHHQYLURQPHQWDO PDQDJHPHQW LV DOVR FRQWDLQHG LQ WKH 5LR 'HFODUDWLRQ RQ (QYLURQPHQW DQG 'HYHORSPHQW 8QLWHG1DWLRQV E SULQFLSOH DQGPRUH REOLTXHO\ LPSOLHG LQWKH6WDWHPHQWRI3ULQFLSOHVIRUWKH6XVWDLQDEOH0DQDJHPHQWRI)RUHVWV8QLWHG 1DWLRQVFDWDG$UWLFOHMRIWKHConvention on Biological Diversity, ZKLFKZDVRSHQHGIRUVLJQDWXUHDWWKH(DUWK6XPPLWDI¿UPVLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶ rights to their traditional knowledge and recognizes the contribution that traditional NQRZOHGJHDQGSUDFWLFHVPDNHWRFRQVHUYDWLRQDQGWKHVXVWDLQDEOHXVHRIELRORJLFDO GLYHUVLW\8QLWHG1DWLRQVG0RUHUHFHQWO\WKH:RUOG6XPPLWRQ6XVWDLQDEOH 'HYHORSPHQW :66' LQ-RKDQQHVEXUJ LQ UHDI¿UPHG WKH µYLWDO UROHRI WKH LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVLQVXVWDLQDEOHGHYHORSPHQW¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVD

2WKHU81VXPPLWV WR DGGUHVV LQGLJHQRXV FRQFHUQV LQFOXGH WKH:RUOG &RQIHUHQFH RQ +XPDQ 5LJKWV WKH 81 &RQIHUHQFH RQ 3RSXODWLRQ DQG

'HYHORSPHQW DQG WKH )RXUWK:RUOG&RQIHUHQFH RQ:RPHQ7KH9LHQQD 'HFODUDWLRQ DQG 3URJUDP RI$FWLRQ GHYRWHV D VHFWLRQ WR LQGLJHQRXV µSHRSOH¶ ± WHUPLQRORJ\UHÀHFWLQJWKHVHQVLWLYLWLHVRIVWDWHVRQWKHLVVXHRILQGLJHQRXVVHOI GHWHUPLQDWLRQ±LQZKLFKLWFDOOVIRUDPRQJVWRWKHUWKLQJVWKHSURFODPDWLRQRIDQ LQWHUQDWLRQDOGHFDGHDQGWKHHVWDEOLVKPHQWRIDSHUPDQHQWIRUXP8QLWHG1DWLRQV DSDUDV±7KH3URJUDPPHRI$FWLRQRIWKH,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RQIHUHQFH RQ3RSXODWLRQDQG'HYHORSPHQWDOVRHDUPDUNHG LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV IRU VSHFLDO DWWHQWLRQDQGFDOOHGRQJRYHUQPHQWVWRUHVSHFWWKHFXOWXUHVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV SURWHFWDQGUHVWRUHWKHLUHFRV\VWHPVDQGQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHVYLWDOIRUWKHLUVXUYLYDO DQG WR WDNH LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶SHUVSHFWLYHV LQWRDFFRXQW LQ WKHIRUPXODWLRQRI QDWLRQDO SRSXODWLRQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW VWUDWHJLHV 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV E SDUDV ± 7KH %HLMLQJ 'HFODUDWLRQ DQG 3ODWIRUP RI$FWLRQ PDNHV D QXPEHU RI UHIHUHQFHV WR LQGLJHQRXVZRPHQSULQFLSDOO\ LQ UHODWLRQ WR LVVXHVRI FXOWXUDO GLYHUVLW\ HGXFDWLRQ PHGLD DQG GHYHORSPHQW 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV E VHH HJ SDUDVTGDQGQ)LQDOO\ WKH:RUOG&RQIHUHQFH$JDLQVW5DFLVPLQ DOVR GHDOW UHODWLYHO\ H[WHQVLYHO\ ZLWK LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV¶ LVVXHV WKRXJK RQWKHZKROH LQGLJHQRXVUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVZHUHGLVDSSRLQWHGZLWK WKHFRQIHUHQFH RXWFRPHV QRW OHDVW WKH TXDOL¿FDWLRQ DWWDFKHG WR WKH XVH RI WKHZRUG µSHRSOHV¶ LQ WKH:RUOG &RQIHUHQFH$JDLQVW 5DFLVP 5DFLDO 'LVFULPLQDWLRQ ;HQRSKRELD DQG5HODWHG,QWROHUDQFH'HFODUDWLRQ3DUDJUDSKRIWKH'HFODUDWLRQVWDWHVWKDW WKHXVHRIWKHWHUPµLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶PXVWEHUHJDUGHGDVµLQWKHFRQWH[WRI DQGZLWKRXWSUHMXGLFH WR WKHRXWFRPHRIRQJRLQJ LQWHUQDWLRQDOQHJRWLDWLRQVRQ WH[WVWKDWVSHFL¿FDOO\GHDOZLWKWKLVLVVXHDQGFDQQRWEHFRQVWUXHGDVKDYLQJDQ\ LPSOLFDWLRQVDVWRULJKWVXQGHULQWHUQDWLRQDOODZ¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVDSDUD

$QRWKHUVRXUFHRIQRUPDWLYHFRQWHQWLQUHVSHFWRILQGLJHQRXVULJKWVHPHUJHV IURPWKHGHFODUDWLRQVDQGSURJUDPPDWLFJXLGHOLQHVRI81VSHFLDOL]HGDJHQFLHV 7KH8QLWHG1DWLRQV(GXFDWLRQDO6FLHQWL¿FDQG&XOWXUDO2UJDQL]DWLRQ81(6&2 8QLYHUVDO'HFODUDWLRQRQ&XOWXUDO'LYHUVLWy LV EURDGO\ UHOHYDQW WR LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV HVSHFLDOO\ZKHUH LWPDNHV WKH FRQQHFWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH SURWHFWLRQ RI FXOWXUDOGLYHUVLW\DQGUHVSHFWIRUKXPDQGLJQLW\DQGLQRXWOLQLQJWKHFRQWULEXWLRQ RIWUDGLWLRQDONQRZOHGJHWRHQYLURQPHQWDOFRQVHUYDWLRQ81(6&27KH 8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HYHORSPHQW3URJUDP¶V81'3SROLF\RQLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV 81'3 DQG ,QGLJHQRXV 3HRSOHV$ 3UDFWLFH 1RWH RQ (QJDJHPHQW LV EURDGO\ consistent with standards of indigenous rights, and prioritizes the principles of HTXLWDEOHJOREDOL]DWLRQKXPDQULJKWVSDUWLFLSDWLRQSRYHUW\UHGXFWLRQFRQÀLFW SUHYHQWLRQDQGSHDFHEXLOGLQJDQGHQYLURQPHQWDQGVXVWDLQDEOHGHYHORSPHQW LQJXLGLQJ81'3SUDFWLFH 8QLWHG1DWLRQV'HYHORSPHQW3URJUDP7KH :RUOG+HDOWK2UJDQL]DWLRQ:+2DGRSWHGWKH*HQHYD'HFODUDWLRQRQWKH +HDOWKDQG6XUYLYDORI,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHV:+2DQGWKHRUJDQL]DWLRQ LV IXUWKHUPDQGDWHG WKURXJK D QXPEHU RI:RUOG+HDOWK$VVHPEO\ UHVROXWLRQV to promote the right of indigenous peoples to the highest attainable standard of KHDOWKZKLFKLVOLQNHGLQ:+2DSSURDFKHVWRWUDGLWLRQDOOLIHVW\OHVDQGFXOWXUDO

ZHOOEHLQJ Other programmatic statements include the Inter-American 'HYHORSPHQW%DQN¶V2SHUDWLRQDO3ROLF\RQ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHV,QWHU$PHULFDQ 'HYHORSPHQW %DQN D DQG 6WUDWHJ\ IRU ,QGLJHQRXV 'HYHORSPHQW ,QWHU $PHULFDQ'HYHORSPHQW%DQNEDQGWKH:RUOG%DQN¶V5HYLVHG2SHUDWLRQDO 3ROLF\ DQG%DQN3URFHGXUH RQ ,QGLJHQRXV 3HRSOHV23%3 :RUOG%DQN D

Two UN Decades

$QLQLWLDWLYHWKDWSRLQWVWRV\VWHPLFLQWHUHVWLQLQGLJHQRXVFRQFHUQVZLWKLQWKH81 V\VWHPLVWKHFDOOLQJRIWZRFRQVHFXWLYH81,QWHUQDWLRQDO'HFDGHVRQWKH:RUOG¶V ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHIURP±DQG±UHVSHFWLYHO\8QLWHG1DWLRQV DD7KH¿UVW'HFDGHZDVFDOOHGXQGHUWKHWKHPHRIµSDUWQHUVKLSLQ action’ and was committed to the goal of strengthening ‘international cooperation IRUWKHVROXWLRQRISUREOHPVIDFHGE\LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHLQVXFKDUHDVDVKXPDQ ULJKWVWKHHQYLURQPHQWHGXFDWLRQDQGKHDOWK¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVFSDUD 7KH SURJUDP RI DFWLYLWLHV IRU WKH'HFDGH LGHQWL¿HG D QXPEHU RI JHQHUDO IDU UHDFKLQJ REMHFWLYHV LQFOXGLQJ WKH SURPRWLRQ DQG SURWHFWLRQ RI WKH ULJKWV RI indigenous peoples, the education of indigenous and non-indigenous societies concerning the situation, cultures, aspirations, and rights of indigenous peoples, the implementation of resolutions concerning indigenous peoples made at highOHYHO FRQIHUHQFHV VXFK DV WKH :RUOG &RQIHUHQFH RQ +XPDQ 5LJKWV DQG WKH GHYHORSPHQWE\81VSHFLDOL]HGDJHQFLHVDQGLQWHUQDWLRQDODQGQDWLRQDODJHQFLHV RIDFWLYLWLHVDQGLQLWLDWLYHVEHQH¿WLQJLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV8QLWHG1DWLRQVE $QQH[ 7KH VHFRQG 'HFDGH FRPPHQFHG LQ ZLWK WKH JRDO RI µIXUWKHU VWUHQJWKHQLQJRILQWHUQDWLRQDOFRRSHUDWLRQ¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVDSDUDDQG ZDVFDOOHGLQSDUWDVDUHVXOWRIWKHVKRUWFRPLQJVRIWKH¿UVWGHFDGHLQFOXGLQJ WKHIDLOXUHWRDGRSWDGHFODUDWLRQRQLQGLJHQRXVULJKWV7KH¿UVW81'HFDGHZDV VXEMHFW WR D QXPEHU RI FULWLFDO HYDOXDWLRQV DFFXVHG E\ VRPH RI EHLQJ SXUHO\ V\PEROLFDQGDGLVWUDFWLRQ IURPWKH OLYHGFRQFHUQVRI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV VHH HJ&RUQWDVVHO3DULVLDQG&RUQWDVVHO

,QVSLWHRIWKHPDQLIHVWGLVDSSRLQWPHQWVRIWKH¿UVW81'HFDGHDUHYLHZRI GHYHORSPHQWV GXULQJ WKH'HFDGH XQGRXEWHGO\ UHYHDOV D QXPEHU RI VLJQL¿FDQW DFKLHYHPHQWVDQGDQRYHUDOOLQFUHDVHLQ81DFWLYLWLHVLQUHODWLRQWRLQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVVHH8QLWHG1DWLRQVED7KHPRVWQRWDEOHRIWKHVHLQFOXGHWKH FUHDWLRQRID813HUPDQHQW)RUXPRQ,QGLJHQRXV,VVXHV3),,DQGD816SHFLDO 5DSSRUWHXURQWKH6LWXDWLRQRIWKH+XPDQ5LJKWVDQG)XQGDPHQWDO)UHHGRPVRI ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOH 6SHFLDO5DSSRUWHXU ERWK RIZKLFK DUH GLVFXVVHG LQPRUH GHWDLOEHORZ2WKHUFRQFUHWHLQVWLWXWLRQDOGHYHORSPHQWVLQFOXGHWKHODXQFKE\WKH 2I¿FHRIWKH+LJK&RPPLVVLRQHURI+XPDQ5LJKWV2+&+5RIWKH,QGLJHQRXV

)HOORZVKLS 3URJUDPPH D GHYHORSPHQW LQWHQGHG WR VXSSRUW FDSDFLW\EXLOGLQJ LQ LQGLJHQRXV FRPPXQLWLHV WKURXJK WKHSURYLVLRQRIKXPDQ ULJKWV WUDLQLQJ IRU LQGLJHQRXV IHOORZV ZLWK WUDLQLQJ RIIHUHG LQ (QJOLVK 6SDQLVK )UHQFK DQG 5XVVLDQ 'LYHUVH VSHFLDOL]HG DJHQFLHV KDYH DOVR SURPRWHG D ZKROH KRVW RI LQLWLDWLYHVWKDWUHÀHFWWKHYLHZRIWKHIRUPHU6HFUHWDU\*HQHUDO.R¿$QQDQWKDW µWKHUH LVYLUWXDOO\QR8QLWHG1DWLRQVDFWLYLW\ZKLFKGRHVQRWDIIHFW LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVLQVRPHZD\RUDQRWKHUDQGLQZKLFKLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVGRQRWKDYH D OHJLWLPDWH LQWHUHVW¶ FLWHG LQ ,,7& $V IRU UDLVLQJ DZDUHQHVV RQ WKH VLWXDWLRQ FXOWXUHV DQG ULJKWV RI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV WKH¿UVW81'HFDGH VDZ the holding of a number of workshops and seminars on a range of topics, LQFOXGLQJ LQGLJHQRXV PHGLD 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV D KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ DQG LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV8QLWHG1DWLRQVDPXOWLFXOWXUDOLVPLQ$IULFD8QLWHG 1DWLRQV E E E LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV DQG WKH DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RI MXVWLFH8QLWHG1DWLRQVEDQGWUHDWLHVDJUHHPHQWVDQGRWKHUFRQVWUXFWLYH DUUDQJHPHQWV EHWZHHQ VWDWHV DQG LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV 8QLWHG1DWLRQV F $GGLWLRQDOO\DQXPEHURIVSHFLDOLVWVWXGLHVZHUHFDUULHGRXWE\H[SHUWPHPEHUV RI WKH 6XE&RPPLVVLRQ QRWDEO\ RQ WKH FXOWXUDO DQG LQWHOOHFWXDO SURSHUW\ RI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV 'DHVD WKHSURWHFWLRQRI WKHKHULWDJHRI LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV'DHVWUHDWLHVDJUHHPHQWVDQGFRQVWUXFWLYHDUUDQJHPHQWVEHWZHHQ VWDWHV DQG LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV $OIRQVR 0DUWtQH] LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV DQGWKHLUUHODWLRQVKLSWRODQG'DHVDDQGLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶SHUPDQHQW VRYHUHLJQW\RYHUQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHV'DHVD

UN Special Rapporteur

7KHSRVWRI816SHFLDO5DSSRUWHXURQWKH+XPDQ5LJKWVDQG)XQGDPHQWDO)UHHGRPV RI ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHZDV FUHDWHG LQ ZLWK WKH RULJLQDOPDQGDWH WR JDWKHU FRPPXQLFDWLRQV IURP UHOHYDQW VRXUFHV LQFOXGLQJ JRYHUQPHQWV DQG LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHVUHJDUGLQJYLRODWLRQVRIWKHKXPDQULJKWVRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVDQGWR IRUPXODWHUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVDQGSURSRVDOVRQPHDVXUHVDQGDFWLYLWLHVWRUHPHG\ DQGSUHYHQWVXFKYLRODWLRQV8QLWHG1DWLRQVF,Q WKLVUHVSHFW LWDFWVDVD NLQGRIQRQWUHDW\PRQLWRULQJSURFHGXUHZKHUHE\±XQOLNHWKHIRUPHU:*,3±WKH 6SHFLDO5DSSRUWHXULVDXWKRUL]HGWRLQYHVWLJDWHVSHFL¿FFRPSODLQWVEURXJKWWRKLP E\LQGLJHQRXVRUJDQL]DWLRQVDQGFRPPXQLWLHV7KHUROHLVIXO¿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

WKHPDWLFH[SHUWLVHWRWKH+XPDQ5LJKWV&RXQFLORQKXPDQULJKWVLVVXHVDIIHFWLQJ LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV6LQFHWKH6SHFLDO5DSSRUWHXUKDVDOVREHHQPDQGDWHG WRH[DPLQHWKHµZD\VDQGPHDQVRIRYHUFRPLQJH[LVWLQJREVWDFOHVWRWKHIXOODQG HIIHFWLYHSURWHFWLRQRIWKHKXPDQULJKWVDQGIXQGDPHQWDOIUHHGRPVRILQGLJHQRXV SHRSOH¶DQGWRµLGHQWLI\H[FKDQJHDQGSURPRWHEHVWSUDFWLFHV¶8QLWHG1DWLRQV E$UWDUHÀHFWLQJDQHPSKDVLVRQLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ7KHFXUUHQW6SHFLDO 5DSSRUWHXULV3URIHVVRU6-DPHV$QD\DZKRVXFFHHGHG0H[LFDQDQWKURSRORJLVW 3URIHVVRU5RGROIR6WDYHQKDJHQLQ6LQFHKLVDSSRLQWPHQWLQ3URIHVVRU $QD\D KDV FRQGXFWHG FRXQWU\ YLVLWV WR$XVWUDOLD %RWVZDQD &RORPELD &KLOH 1HSDO%UD]LO DQG%ROLYLD+LV ODWHVW UHSRUW WR WKH&RXQFLO H[SORUHV WKH GXW\ RIVWDWHVDQGSULYDWHFRPSDQLHVWRFRQVXOWZLWKLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVRQGHFLVLRQV DIIHFWLQJWKHPDQGLWVLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ8QLWHG1DWLRQVD

UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

)ROORZLQJDGHFDGHRUVRRIDFWLYLW\RQWKHSDUWRILQGLJHQRXVFDPSDLJQHUVWKH 813HUPDQHQW)RUXPRQ,QGLJHQRXV,VVXHV3),,ZDVHVWDEOLVKHGLQDVD VXEVLGLDU\ERG\RI(&262&8QLWHG1DWLRQVF,WLVFRPSULVHGRIVL[WHHQ H[SHUWPHPEHUVHLJKWDSSRLQWHGE\JRYHUQPHQWVDQGHLJKWQRPLQDWHGRQWKHEDVLV RIFRQVXOWDWLRQVZLWKLQGLJHQRXVRUJDQL]DWLRQV$VVXFKLWLVWKH¿UVW81ERG\WR EHFRQVWLWXWHGZLWKDPHPEHUVKLSLQFOXVLYHRILQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV¶UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV ZKRPHHWRQDQHTXDOEDVLVZLWKWKHLUJRYHUQPHQWDOFRXQWHUSDUWVDGHYHORSPHQW GHVFULEHGE\2OH+HQULN0DJJDDWWKHRSHQLQJVHVVLRQLQDVµV\PEROL]LQJD QHZNLQGRISDUWQHUVKLSEHWZHHQLQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVDQGJRYHUQPHQWV¶IURPWKH DXWKRU¶VQRWHV0D\/RFDWHGDWDKLJKHUSRVLWLRQLQWKH81KLHUDUFK\ than other UN bodies dedicated to indigenous concerns, the PFII has a broad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¿FDQWZD\WRZDUGVHQDFWLQJWKH LQWHUQDWLRQDOOHJDOSHUVRQDOLW\VRXJKWE\LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV

7KH3),,PHHWV IRU WZRZHHNVHDFK\HDUDW81KHDGTXDUWHUV LQ1HZ<RUN DQGKDV GRQH VR VLQFH LWV¿UVW VHVVLRQ LQ0D\7KH DQQXDO UHSRUWV RI WKH sessions contain scores of recommendations on wide-ranging issues affecting LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV IURP LQGLJHQRXVFKLOGUHQDQG\RXWK WRSRYHUW\HUDGLFDWLRQ DQGWKH0LOOHQQLXP'HYHORSPHQW*RDOVLQGLJHQRXVZRPHQPDWWHUVUHODWLQJWR territories and natural resources, and climate change and the stewardship role of LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHV2WKHULPSRUWDQWZRUNFDUULHGRXWE\WKH)RUXPKDVLQYROYHG WKHSUHSDUDWLRQRIDQXPEHURISXEOLFDWLRQVUHSRUWVDQGGHVNUHYLHZVFRQFHUQLQJ LQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV LQFOXGLQJ WKH ¿UVW HGLWLRQ RI The State of the World’s Indigenous Peoples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

UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

(VWDEOLVKHGLQE\+XPDQ5LJKWV&RXQFLO5HVROXWLRQ8QLWHG1DWLRQV FWKH81([SHUW0HFKDQLVPRQWKH5LJKWVRI,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHV(05,3 LVDUHODWLYHO\UHFHQWLQLWLDWLYHHPHUJLQJRXWRIWKHUHIRUPRIWKH81KXPDQULJKWV PDFKLQHU\ LQ ZKLFK UHSODFHG WKH&RPPLVVLRQ RQ+XPDQ5LJKWV ± ORQJ FRQVLGHUHG WR KDYH EHFRPH WRR SROLWLFL]HG ± ZLWK WKH +XPDQ 5LJKWV &RXQFLO FRPSULVHGRIWKHUHSUHVHQWDWLYHVRIVWDWHVDQGFKDUJHGZLWKµSURPRWLQJXQLYHUVDO respect for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all’, µDGGUHVVLQJVLWXDWLRQVRIYLRODWLRQVRIKXPDQULJKWVDQGPDNLQJUHFRPPHQGDWLRQV WKHUHRQ¶DQGµSURPRWLQJWKHHIIHFWLYHFRRUGLQDWLRQDQGPDLQVWUHDPLQJRIKXPDQ ULJKWVZLWKLQWKH81V\VWHP¶8QLWHG1DWLRQVE$UWVDQG7KH(05,3LV DVXEVLGLDU\H[SHUWPHFKDQLVPRIWKH+XPDQ5LJKWV&RXQFLODQGZDVHVWDEOLVKHG DVWKHPRVWDSSURSULDWHPHFKDQLVPWRFRQWLQXHWKHPDQGDWHRIWKH:*,3ZKLFK KHOGLWV¿QDOVHVVLRQLQ,WVPDQGDWHDVVXPHVVRPHRIWKHZRUNRIWKHIRUPHU :*,3DQGLVWZRIROGDWRSURYLGHWKHPDWLFH[SHUWLVHRQWKHULJKWVRILQGLJHQRXV SHRSOHV WR WKH&RXQFLO IRFXVLQJPDLQO\ RQ VWXGLHV DQG UHVHDUFKEDVHG DGYLFH DQG E WR VXJJHVW SURSRVDOV WR WKH&RXQFLO IRU LWV FRQVLGHUDWLRQ DQG DSSURYDO 8QLWHG1DWLRQVF$UWVDDQGE,QFRPSRVLWLRQWKH([SHUW0HFKDQLVP UHÀHFWV WKH FRQVWLWXWLRQ RI WKH IRUPHU:*,3 LQ EHLQJ FRPSRVHG RI ¿YH H[SHUW PHPEHUVWKRXJKZLWKRQHLPSRUWDQWGLIIHUHQFHQDPHO\WKDWµLQWKHVHOHFWLRQDQG DSSRLQWPHQWSURFHVVGXHUHJDUGEHJLYHQWRH[SHUWVRILQGLJHQRXVRULJLQ¶ibid $UW 7KH FXUUHQW H[SHUWV DUH -DQQLH/DVLPEDQJ 0DOD\VLD3UHVLGHQW RI WKH $VLDQ,QGLJHQRXV3HRSOHV¶3DFW$,33&DWKHULQH2GLPED.RPEH'HPRFUDWLF 5HSXEOLFRI&RQJR -RKQ%HUQKDUG+HQULNVHQ 1RUZD\ D6DDPL DQG DGYLVRU WR WKH1RUZHJLDQ)RUHLJQ0LQLVWU\-RVp&DUORV0RUDOHV0RUDOHV &RVWD5LFD DQG-RVp0HQFLR0ROLQWDV 3KLOLSSLQHV ,EDORL ODZ\HUDQG IRUPHU&KDLURI WKH &RUGLOOHUD3HRSOHV¶$OOLDQFH

7KH (05,3 KDV KHOG WZR VHVVLRQV WR GDWH 7KH ¿UVW VHVVLRQ LQ 2FWREHU PDGH D VHULHV RI SURSRVDOV WR WKH+XPDQ5LJKWV&RXQFLO UHODWLQJ WR WKH organization of work, the participation of indigenous peoples, coordination of WKH (05,3 ZLWK RWKHU 8QLWHG 1DWLRQV ERGLHV DQG PDQGDWHV DQG WKH ULJKW RI LQGLJHQRXVSHRSOHVWRHGXFDWLRQ8QLWHG1DWLRQVE,WDOVRPDGHDQXPEHU RI UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV UHJDUGLQJ WKH'XUEDQ5HYLHZ&RQIHUHQFH LQFOXGLQJ WKDW WKH'XUEDQ'HFODUDWLRQ DQG 3URJUDPPH RI$FWLRQ EH UHYLVHG WR WDNH LQWR account the that ‘the right of self-determination and the principle of free, prior DQGLQIRUPHGFRQVHQWDUHQRZXQLYHUVDOO\UHFRJQL]HGWKURXJKWKHDGRSWLRQRIWKH 'HFODUDWLRQ>81'5,[email protected]'XUEDQ'HFODUDWLRQREVROHWH¶ ibid6WXGLHVFRPPLVVLRQHGE\WKH(05,3WKXVIDULQFOXGHDStudy on Lessons Learned and Challenges to Achieve the Implementation of the Right of Indigenous Peoples to Education FRPSOHWHG LQ 8QLWHG1DWLRQVF DQGDStudy on Indigenous Peoples and the Right to Participate in Decision-Making, due for FRPSOHWLRQLQ

Figure 1.1 Overview of Main UN Initiatives

This page has been left blank intentionally