chapter  7
18 Pages

Cultural Dynamics

This chapter explores the key cast of characters that have been responsible for the birth and growth of action research that serves as a bridge between research and innovation in the social sciences. It also explores the journey towards Integral Research, altogether culminating in southern participatory action research (PAR), eastern cooperative inquiry (CI), northern socio-technical design (STD), as well as western generic action research (AR). The chapter have charted the composite paths of research to innovation that is needed to draw upon, to promote the Transformation Management through Four Worlds and the GENE. The mode of process intervention or project-based learning leading to social innovation therefore, thereby cutting across enterprise and academe, consultancy and education, organizational workshops and academic projects, is action research. Such action research becomes potentially integrated, thereby paving way for fully fledged social innovation, whereby it accommodates all four of the worlds, in this case spanning individual and institutional, interpersonal and societal.